State of the Environment Report title
2 0 0 4

2004 Report



Tumbarumba

Native Species

Indicator description

Results for this indicator are also available for  

What the results tell us for Tumbarumba

The full extent of native animal and plant species diversity in Tumbarumba Shire is not known. About 860 plant species (native and introduced) and 252 animal species have been recorded there, but these records are not comprehensive. As the shire was not included in the regional State of the Environment report for the previous reporting period, comparisons of diversity with that period are not possible.

Photograph of Monaro Golden Daisy, Rutidosis leiolepis; Credit: John Briggs

Monaro Golden Daisy Rutidosis leiolepis

Photograph of Spotted Tree Frog; Credit: Rosemary Purdie

Spotted Tree Frog

Eleven plant and 36 vertebrate animal species that occur in the shire are listed as Vulnerable or Endangered in NSW or nationally. The number of species in the shire listed as nationally threatened increased by one during the reporting period and the number listed as threatened in NSW increased by six. Two animal species had their status upgraded during the current period, one from nationally Vulnerable to nationally Endangered, and the other from Vulnerable to Endangered in NSW. An additional 36 threatened species are predicted to occur in the shire.

Native plants and animals in the shire are subject to national, state and local laws relating to biodiversity protection. Formal recovery plans were in place for nine listed threatened species; plans were adopted for six species during the current reporting period. During the same period, recovery plans were being prepared for nine species and were exhibited for another species. Fourteen listed animal species were covered by national action plans. Although various recovery actions had been initiated for many threatened species, the extent to which activities were carried out in the shire and had been effective in conserving species was not known.

In addition to assessing development proposals under its Local Environment Plan 1988, council developed a vegetation management plan during the reporting period to help protect biodiversity along roadside verges in the shire.

What native species occur in the shire?

No comprehensive lists of plant or animal species were available for Tumbarumba Shire. As past extensive clearing has resulted in significant loss of natural habitat for native plants and animals, species occurring in vegetation remnants within or near the shire provide some indication of the area's former native species diversity. Important areas containing remnant vegetation include national parks, nature reserves, travelling stock reserves, road reserves and cemeteries.

Plants (flora)

List of plant species in Tumbarumba Shire

About 860 plant species, most of them native, have been recorded in the shire, including over 100 lichens and mosses. No information was available on the abundance of native plant species during the reporting period.

Eleven plants recorded in the shire are listed as vulnerable or endangered (see Table 1); all were listed prior to the current reporting period. Scientific experts predict that an additional 16 vulnerable or endangered species may also occur in the shire (see Table 2), although there were no confirmed records of them at the end of the reporting period.

Table 1. Threatened plants known to occur in Tumbarumba Shire
Common
name
Scientific
name
Conservation status#Recovery Plan or Action Plan (Date if known)
NationalNSWChange*
Anenome ButtercupRanunculus anemoneusVVNoNational Recovery Plan (?2001); NSW Recovery Plan (2001)
Austral PillwortPilularia novae-hollandiaeENoNone
Austral ToadflaxThesium australeVVNoNational Recovery Plan in preparation (as at 28/02/04)
Bago Leek OrchidPrasophyllum bagoensisENoNone
Elusive CressIrenepharsus magicusERecovery Plan
Feldmark GrassRytidosperma pumilum (Erythranthera pumila)VVNoNational Recovery Plan (?2001); NSW Recovery Plan (2001)
Monaro Golden DaisyRutidosis leiolepisVVNoNone
Raleigh SedgeCarex raleighiiENoNSW Recovery Plan (2001)
Rough EyebrightEuphrasia scabraENoNone
Shining CudweedEuchiton nitidulusVVNoNational Recovery Plan (?2001); NSW Recovery Plan (2001)
Small Snake OrchidDiuris pedunculataEENoNone

# Status (threat category): E = Endangered; V = Vulnerable
† National status under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999; ‡ NSW status under the Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995; * Change in status since the end of the last reporting period (see also Threatened species—national status)
Source: ANH 2005; DEC 2005b; DEH 2005; NSW Government 2005

Table 2. Threatened plant species predicted to occur in Tumbarumba Shire
Common nameScientific name
Cotonaster PomoderrisPomaderris cotoneaster
Crimson Spider OrchidCaladenia concolor
Floating Swamp Wallaby-grassAmphibromus fluitans
Kiandra Leek OrchidPrasophyllum morganii
Leafy Anchor PlantDiscaria nitida
Mauve Burr-daisyCalotis glandulosa
Max Mueller's Burr-daisyCalotis pubescens
Phantom WattleAcacia phasmoides
Rosella Spider OrchidCaladenia rosella
Silky Swainson-peaSwainsona sericea
Square RaspwortHaloragis exalata subsp. exalata
Swamp EverlastingXerochrysum palustre
Tumut GrevilleaGrevillea wilkinsonii
Wee Jasper GrevilleaGrevillea iaspicula
Woolly RagwortSenecio garlandii
Yass DaisyAmmobium craspedioides

Source: DEC 2005b

Animals (fauna)

List of native animal species in Tumbarumba Shire

Two hundred and fifty two native vertebrate animal species have been recorded in the shire, about 65% of them birds (see Table 3). The number of invertebrate animals (insects etc) is not known. No specific information was available on the abundance of animal species during the reporting period.

Table 3. Number of vertebrate animal species known to occur in Tumbarumba Shire
Animal group (Order)Number of species
2004
Mammals41
Birds162
Amphibians17
Reptiles29
Fish3
Total252

Source: NSW Government, 2005; Birds Australia 2005; CSIRO 2005

Thirty-six animal species recorded in Tumbarumba Shire are listed as endangered or vulnerable (see Table 4). They include 12 mammals, 14 birds, six frogs, one reptile and three fish. During the reporting period five species were listed as Vulnerable in NSW, one Endangered in NSW, and one nationally Endangered. Two species had their status upgraded—the Mountain Pygmy-possum (Burramys parvus) from Vulnerable to Endangered in NSW, and the Spotted-tailed Quoll (Dasyurus maculatus) from nationally Vulnerable to nationally Endangered. The Mountain Pygmy-possum is considered to be one of the species most threatened in Australia under climate change, as it lives on mountain-tops and has adapted to a cold climate (DEH 2005).

Table 4. Threatened animals known to occur in Tumbarumba Shire
Common
name
Scientific
name
Conservation status#Recovery Plan or Action Plan (Date if known)
NationalNSWChange*
Mammals
Broad-toothed RatMastacomys fuscusVNoNone
Brush-tailed PhascogalePhascogale tapoatafaVNoAction Plan (1996)2
Eastern Bentwing-batMiniopterus schreibersii oceanensisVNoNone
Eastern False PipistrelleFalsistrellus tasmaniensisVNoNone
Eastern Pygmy-possumCercartetus nanusVListed as Vulnerable in NSW, 08/06/01None
KoalaPhascolarctos cinereusVNoRecovery Plan exhibited (21/03/03)
Mountain Pygmy-possumBurramys parvusEEChanged from Vulnerable to Endangered in NSW, 16/03/01 National Recovery Plan in preparation (as at 28/02/04)
Smoky MousePseudomys fumeusEENoNational Recovery Plan in preparation (as at 28/02/04)
Southern Brown Bandicoot (eastern)Isoodon obesulus obesulusEEListed as nationally Endangered, 04/04/01National Recovery Plan in preparation (as at 28/02/04)
Spotted-tailed QuollDasyurus maculatusEVChanged from nationally Vulnerable to nationally Endangered,
14/05/04
National Recovery Plan in preparation (as at 28/02/04); Action Plan (1996)2
Squirrel GliderPetaurus norfolcensisVNoAction Plan (1996)2
Yellow-bellied GliderPetaurus australisVNoRecovery Plan (gazetted 07/03/03); Action Plan (1996)2
Birds
Black-chinned Honeyeater (eastern form)Melithreptus gularis gularisVListed as Vulnerable in NSW, 26/10/2001Action Plan (2000)1
Blue-billed DuckOxyura australisVNoAction Plan (2000)1
Brown Treecreeper (eastern subspecies)Climacteris picumnus victoriaeVListed as Vulnerable in NSW, 26/10/2001Action Plan (2000)1
Glossy Black CockatooCalyptorhynchus lathamiVNoNone
Hooded Robin (south-eastern form)Melanodryas cucullata cucullataVListed as Vulnerable in NSW, 26/10/2001Action Plan (2000)1
Masked OwlTyto novaehollandiaeVNoAction Plan (2000)1
Olive WhistlerPachycephala olivaceaVNoNone
Painted HoneyeaterGrantiella pictaVNoAction Plan (2000)1
Pink RobinPetroica rodinogasterVNoNone
Powerful OwlNinox strenuaVNoAction Plan (2000)1
Regent HoneyeaterXanthomyza phrygiaE ENoNational Recovery Plan 1999–2003; Action Plan (2000)1
Sooty OwlTyto tenebricosaVNoNone
Speckled WarblerPyrrholaemus sagittataVNoAction Plan (2000)1
Turquoise ParrotNeophema pulchellaVNoAction Plan (2000)1
Amphibians
Alpine Tree FrogLitoria verreauxii alpinaVEListed as Endangered in NSW, 15/03/02National Recovery Plan in preparation (as at 28/02/04)
Booroolong FrogLitoria booroolongensisENoRecovery Plan in preparation
Northern Corroboree FrogPseudophryne pengilleyiVVNoNational Recovery Plan in preparation (as at 28/02/04)
Southern Bell FrogLitoria raniformisVENoNational Recovery Plan in preparation (as at 28/02/04)
Southern Corroboree FrogPseudophryne corroboreeEENoNational & NSW Recovery Plan (2001)
Spotted Tree FrogLitoria spenceriEENoNational Recovery Plan 1998-2002 (1998)
Reptiles
Rosenberg's GoannaVaranus rosenbergiVNoNone
Fish
Silver PerchBidyanus bidyanusVListed as Vulnerable in NSW under Fisheries Management Act 1994, August 2000Native Fish Strategy for the Murray-Darling Basin 2003-2013 (2003)4
Southern Pygmy PerchNannoperca australisVNoNone
Trout CodMaccullochella macquariensisEENoNational Recovery Plan 1998-2006 (1998)

# Status (threat category): E = Endangered; V = Vulnerable
† National status under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999; ‡ NSW status under the Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995; * Change in status since the end of the last reporting period (see also Threatened species—national status).
References: 1 = Garnett & Crowley 2000; 2 = Maxwell et al. 1996; 3 = Duncan et al. 1999; 4 = MDBMC 2003; Other sources: Birds Australia 2005; CSIRO 2005; DEC 2005b; DEH 2005; DPI 2005; Graham 2005; NSW Government 2005

Scientific experts predict that an additional 20 vulnerable or endangered animal species may occur in the shire (see Table 5), although there were no confirmed records of them at the end of the reporting period.

Table 5. Threatened animals predicted to occur in Tumbarumba Shire
Common nameScientific name
Pink-tailed Worm-lizardAprasia parapulchella
Striped Legless LizardDelma impar
Australasian BitternBotaurus poiciloptilus
Barking OwlNinox connivens
BrolgaGrus rubicundus
Bush Stone-curlewBurhinus grallarius
Diamond FiretailStagonopleura guttata
Freckled DuckStictonetta naevosa
Grey FalconFalco hypoleucos
Grey-crowned Babbler (eastern subspecies)Pomatostomus temporalis temporalis
Painted SnipeRostratula benghalensis
Square-tailed KiteLophoictinia isura
Superb ParrotPolytelis swainsonii
Swift ParrotLathamus discolor
Eastern Bentwing-batMiniopterus schreibersii oceanensis
Large-footed MyotisMyotis adversus
Smoky MousePseudomys fumeus
Spotted-tailed QuollDasyurus maculatus
Squirrel GliderPetaurus norfolcensis
Yellow-bellied Sheathtail-batSaccolaimus flaviventris

Source: DEC 2005b

In the broader South Eastern Highlands and Australian Alps bioregions within which Tumbarumba Shire is located, some bird species that are not listed as threatened are reported to have decreased in abundance over the last 20 years, although others are reported to have increased (Barrett et al. 2003). A selection of these species that occur in the shire is listed in Table 6.

Table 6. Native birds reported to be declining or increasing in the South Eastern Highlands and Australian Alps bioregions and known to occur in Tumbarumba Shire*
Common NameScientific NameDecliningIncreasing
Australian Raven Corvus coronoides+
Black-shouldered Kite Elanus axillaris+
Brown Falcon Falco berigora+
Eastern Yellow RobinEopsaltria australis+
EmuDromaius novaehollandiae+
Golden WhistlerPachycephala pectoralis+
Grey Shrike-thrush Colluricincla harmonica+
Jacky WinterMicroeca fascinans+
Little EagleHieraaetus morphnoides+
Masked Lapwing Vanellus miles+
MistletoebirdDicaeum hirundinaceum+
Nankeen Kestrel Falco cenchroides+
Noisy Friarbird Philemon corniculatus+
Pied Currawong Strepera graculina+
Purple SwamphenPorphyrio porphyrio+
Red Wattlebird Anthochaera carunculata+
Restless Flycatcher Myiagra inquieta+
SilvereyeZosterops lateralis+
Spotted PardalotePardalotus punctatus+
Striated Pardalote Pardalotus striatus+
Superb Fairy-wren Malurus cyaneus+
Wedge-tailed EagleAquila audax+
WeebillSmicrornis brevirostris+
Yellow ThornbillAcanthiza nana+

* For a complete list of declining and increasing species in the bioregion, see Barrett et al. (2003) pages 757–788.; Source: Barrett et al. 2003; Birds Australia 2005; CSIRO 2005; NSW Government 2005.

Threats and impacts on native species

Habitat disturbance and fragmentation are major threats to the distribution and abundance of native plant and animal species within the shire; with changes in landcover and landuse significant factors. There is little documented information however on the specific impacts of habitat disturbance, fragmentation or other threatening factors on species.

Although native plants and animals in the shire would have been subject to prolonged drought conditions during the current reporting period, actual drought impacts on species are generally not known or poorly understood. Such a natural event may however affect the abundance of species by causing localised deaths (plants and animals) or migration out of the area (animals).

Threatening processes affecting plants

Several key processes listed as threatening in Schedule 3 of the NSW Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 are relevant to plant species in Tumbarumba Shire. They include:

The main known threats to some of the endangered/vulnerable plants occurring in the shire are outlined in Table 7. For information on known threats for other threatened plants in the area, including species predicted to occur there, see http://www.threatenedspecies.environment.nsw.gov.au/index.aspx.

Table 7. Selection of known threats to some listed Endangered and Vulnerable plants in Tumbarumba Shire
Species Threats
Anenome Buttercup
  • habitat and plants may be lost as a result of ski slope developments
Austral Pillwort
  • drainage of swamps
  • roadside populations may be threatened by roadworks
Elusive Cress
  • inadvertent weed spraying
Feldmark Grass
  • trampling by bushwalkers
Shining Cudweed
  • trampling damage by horses and bush walkers
Small Snake Orchid
  • clearing, fragmentation and/or disturbance of habitat through agriculture, development and roadside maintenance works, weed invasion, grazing and trampling by domestic stock
  • illegal plant removal
  • feral pigs disturbing or eating orchid tubers
  • frequent fire, or fire during the active growth period (spring–autumn)

Source: DEC 2005b

Threatening processes affecting animals

Several key processes listed as threatening in Schedule 3 of the NSW Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 are relevant to animal species in Tumbarumba Shire. They include:

Eight key threats identified for native fish within the Murray-Darling Basin (MDBMC 2003) may also be relevant to fish species within the shire. These threats are low regulation, habitat degradation, lowered water quality, barriers, alien species, exploitation, diseases, and translocation and stocking.

Threats identified for most endangered/vulnerable animals occurring in Tumbarumba Shire are shown in Table 8. The threats include a range of factors that affect species habitat, food sources or population viability. Habitat clearance and fragmentation threaten many of the species. For information about known threats for individual species that occur in the shire, and other threatened species predicted to occur there, see http://www.threatenedspecies.environment.nsw.gov.au/index.aspx.

Table 8. Selection of known threats to some listed Endangered and Vulnerable animals in Tumbarumba Shire
Species Threats
Mammals*
Broad-toothed Rat; Brush-tailed Phascogale; Eastern Bent-wing Bat; Eastern False Pipistrelle; Eastern Pygmy-possum; Koala; Smoky Mouse; Spotted-tailed Quoll; Squirrel Glider; Yellow-bellied Glider
  • habitat loss, fragmentation and/or degradation through native vegetation clearance, disturbance to roosting and breeding sites, loss of trees for foraging and hollow-bearing trees for roosting, use of pesticides and herbicides in or adjacent to foraging areas
  • reduction in stream water quality affecting food resources
  • competition with foxes and feral cats
  • predation by foxes and dogs
  • impacts of widespread strychnine baiting for dingoes
  • non-target mortality from trapping and poisoning
  • mortality as a result of raiding caged birds
Birds*
Black-chinned Honeyeater (eastern form); Blue-billed Duck; Brown Treecreeper (eastern subspecies); Hooded Robin; Olive Whistler; Painted Honeyeater; Pink Robin; Powerful Owl; Speckled Warbler; Turquoise Parrot
  • habitat loss, fragmentation and/or degradation through native vegetation clearance, tree loss through altered water tables, overgrazing by stock and rabbits
  • habitat loss, fragmentation and degradation
  • fox and cat predation
  • competition with Starlings for nest sites
  • road mortality
  • drainage or degradation of deep permanent wetlands
  • mortality during duck hunting season
Amphibians
Alpine Tree Frog; Booroolong Frog, Northern Corroboree Frog, Southern Bell Frog, Southern Corroboree Frog
  • habitat loss, fragmentation and/or degradation through modification of stream channels, loss of cobble banks, loss of native riparian vegetation, stock damage to stream margins, weed invasion of streamside habitats (particularly by willows)
  • changes to water quality through sedimentation and use of herbicides or pesticides near streams
  • predation of eggs and tadpoles by introduced fish
  • disease—chytrid fungus

* Each threat listed does not necessarily apply to every species; Source: DEC 2005b.

What is being done to conserve native species?

National and state laws provide a framework for the protection of native plant and animal species within the shire. Two state laws were enacted during the reporting period: the Native Vegetation Act 2003 and the Catchment Management Authorities Act 2003. These two laws and the National Parks and Wildlife Act 1974 provide a landscape scale framework for biodiversity management. The National Parks and Wildlife Act 1974, other state laws including the Fisheries Management Act 1994 and Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 and the national Environmental Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 provide the framework for the recognition and protection of threatened plant and animal species, and usually require the species to be taken into account during proposed developments. More information on these laws is provided in Government laws and policies.

Tumbarumba Shire is located within the Murray and Murrumbidgee Catchment Management Authority (CMA) areas. Each CMA is required to work in partnership with Local Government as well as other stakeholders. The Murray Catchment Blueprint (Murray Catchment Management Board 2003) and Murrumbidgee Catchment Blueprint (Murrumbidgee Catchment Management Board 2003), both completed during the current reporting period, include a range of management actions to restore, maintain or conserve biodiversity values.

Local government regulations, legislation or planning documents such as local environment plans (LEPs) may also provide some protection for native species, or limit or prohibit certain activities that may lead to the further decline of protected species. Tumbarumba Shire Council continued to assess development applications in accordance with the NSW Environmental Planning and Assessment Act 1979, the NSW Environmental Planning and Assessment Regulations 2000 and the Tumbarumba Local Environmental Plan 1988. The local environment plan is the primary planning instrument for the assessment of development applications on private land in conjunction with the state laws and regulations.

Threatened species recovery planning

Of the 47 threatened species known to occur in Tumbarumba Shire, nine species had formal recovery plans in place (see tables 2 and 6); plans were adopted for six species during the current reporting period. Over the same period, recovery plans were being prepared for nine species and were exhibited for another species. Fourteen threatened animal species were covered by three national action plans, at least two of which were completed prior to the current reporting period.

An array of actions has been detailed by various conservation management agencies for many of the threatened species occurring in Tumbarumba Shire. Although recovery actions had been initiated during the reporting period by researchers and the NSW Department of Environment and Conservation for some of the threatened plant and animal species with no recovery plans, these actions did not necessarily occur within the shire. The extent to which recovery actions are proving effective in conserving targeted threatened species is not clear.

Other actions

Tumbarumba Shire Council developed the Tumbarumba Shire Roadside Vegetation Management Plan during the reporting period to help ensure the protection of biodiversity along roadside verges. The plan identified ten priority actions that included erecting Significant Roadside Environment signs on high conservation value roadsides, training road maintenance and management staff, community involvement in roadside vegetation maintenance, and a range of activities associated with revegetation (see Stein 2003). Council carried out a survey of roadside vegetation within the shire to assess its conservation value and so enable prioritisation for protection and enhancement.

A range of nationally funded activities undertaken during the reporting period in the Murray and Murrumbidgee catchments (DIPNR 2004) may have enhanced the conservation of plant and animal species in the shire.

Tumbarumba Shire supports six Landcare groups. The Landcare NSW website has information on the range of activities occurring in the shire and in the:

About the data

Data for species lists were obtained from the sources listed below.

Selection of species records

Species records were selected from between July 1955 to June 2004. This date range was used to eliminate species which had not been recorded in the last 50 years, and to eliminate historic records with poor locational or taxonomic detail.

Where possible, an attempt was made to exclude exotic species from all species lists. However, due to extensive data and time constraints, some exotic plant species may be included in the list of native plant species and hence also included in the plant species total for the shire.

Some species, especially plants, may appear more than once in the species lists of native plants and animals where slight variations in spelling or formatting of scientific names have occurred between or within the datasets used to compile these lists.

The total number of plant and animal species referred to in this report equals the total number of taxa listed in the lists of native plant and animal species (i.e. the total 'species' count includes varieties, subspecies, forms and hybrids).

Threatened species—national status

Plant and animal species listed under the Commonwealth Government's Endangered Species Protection Act 1992 were automatically transferred to the new Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (EPBC Act) and were formally listed under the EPBC Act on 16 July 2000. Although this listing date falls within the current reporting period, the status of such species was considered to remain unchanged from the previous reporting period.

Threatened species predicted to occur in the shire

Data were provided from DEC, Threatened Species Unit, Southern Directorate as an extract from its Property Vegetation Planning Database. The information contained in this database is available on the internet (DEC 2005b), however the website is still being developed. The underlying data is being refined, additional utilities will be added and a number of known bugs resolved before the site is officially launched.

Recovery planning data

DEC provided the results of a search of the NSW Recovery Planning Database (DEC 2004). The results showed recovery actions undertaken for all threatened species within NSW for the current reporting period. The search was carried out on 15 December 2004.

References

ANH—see Australian National Herbarium

Australian National Herbarium (2005) Australia's Virtual Herbarium database, Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research, CSIRO and Australian National Botanic Gardens, Department of Environment and Conservation, Canberra.

Barrett, G, Silcocks, A, Barry, S, Cunningham, R and Poulter, R (2003) The New Atlas of Australian Birds, Royal Australasian Ornithologist's Union, Melbourne.

Birds Australia (2005) Atlas of Australian Birds database, Birds Australia, Melbourne.

Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (2005) Australian National Wildlife Collection Database, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Sustainable Ecosystems, Canberra.

CSIRO—see Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation

DEC—see Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW)

DEH—see Department of Environment and Heritage (Commonwealth)

Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW) (2004) Recovery Planning Database, Threatened Species Unit, Department of Environment and Conservation, Hurstville.

Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW) (2005a) Atlas of NSW Wildlife Database, Department of Environment and Conservation, Hurstville.

Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW) (2005b) Threatened Species, Populations and Ecological Communities of NSW Catchments, viewed 12 April 2005, http://www.threatenedspecies.environment.nsw.gov.au/index.aspx.

Department of Environment and Heritage (Commonwealth) (2005) Species Profile and Threats Database, viewed December 2005, http://www.deh.gov.au/cgi-bin/sprat/public/sprat.pl.

Department of Infrastructure Planning and Natural Resources (NSW) (2004) 2003/04 Combined NSW Catchment Management Authorities Annual Report, Volume 1: CMA Activities and Achievements, Department of Infrastructure Planning and Natural Resources, Sydney.

Department of Primary Industries (NSW) (2005) Fisheries Scientific Committee Final Recommendations, viewed April 2005, http://www.fisheries.nsw.gov.au/threatened_species/fsc/recomend.

DIPNR—see Department of Infrastructure, Planning and Natural Resources (NSW)

DPI—see Department of Primary Industries (NSW)

Duncan, A, Baker, GB and Montgomery, N (eds) (1999) The Action Plan for Australian Bats, Environment Australia, Canberra.

Garnett, ST and Crowley, GM (2000) The Action Plan for Australian Birds, Environment Australia, Canberra.

Graham, C (2005) Charles Sturt University, personal communication.

Maxwell, S, Burbidge, AA and Morris, K (eds) (1996) The 1996 Action Plan for Australian Marsupials and Monotremes, Environment Australia, Canberra.

MDBMC—see Murray-Darling Basin Ministerial Council

Murray Catchment Management Board (2003) Integrated Catchment Management Plan for the Murray Catchment 2002. Murray Catchment Blueprint, NSW Department of Land and Water Conservation, Sydney, online at http://www.dlwc.nsw.gov.au/care/cmb/blueprints/pdf/murray.html.

Murray-Darling Basin Ministerial Council (2003) Native Fish Strategy for the Murray-Darling Basin 2003–2013, Murray Darling Basin Commission, Canberra.

Murrumbidgee Catchment Management Board (2003) Murrumbidgee Catchment Blueprint, NSW Department of Land and Water Conservation, Sydney, online at http://www.dlwc.nsw.gov.au/care/cmb/blueprints/pdf/murrumbidgee_blueprint.pdf.

NSW Government (2005) BioNet System, NSW Government, viewed 11 April 2005, http://www.bionet.nsw.gov.au/BioNet.cfm?is_ie5up.

Royal Botanic Gardens (2005) Herbarium Collection Database, Royal Botanic Gardens, Sydney.

Stein, D (2003) Tumbarumba Shire Roadside Vegetation Management Plan, Tumbarumba Shire Council, Tumbarumba.