State of the Environment Report title
2 0 0 4

2004 Report



Snowy River

Pest Plants

Indicator description

Results for this indicator are also available for  

What the results tell us for Snowy River

photo of broom, credit: Jackie Miles and Max Campbell, http://www.esc.nsw.gov.au/Weeds/

Snowy River Shire Council identified 12 weeds of priority within their shire. All of the priority weed species have the potential to reduce primary productivity, while three species are poisonous or potentially harmful to livestock, and one species also has the potential to restrict stock access to water courses. All the priority weed species also have the potential to adversely impact on biological diversity and three threatened ecological communities in the shire. One pest plant species was reported to show an increase in high and medium density infestations during the reporting period, while low density infestations and scattered plants were reported to have increased for it and another five species.

Council undertook control measures along roadsides and in its reserves for all priority pest plant species during the reporting period. High and medium infestations of five species were estimated to have decreased over that time. Two pest plant species on private land were also targeted in 2002 and 2003–04. The Department of Environment and Conservation undertook a range of weed control activities in Kosciuszko National Park and three nature reserves located wholly or partly in the shire, often as collaborative programs. No information was available on weeds and weed management in the two state forests located partly within Snowy River Shire.

Pest plant infestations

photo of vipers bugloss, credit: Jackie Miles and Max Campbell, http://www.esc.nsw.gov.au/Weeds/

Twelve priority pest plant species were identified in the Snowy River Shire during the reporting period: African Lovegrass (Eragrostis curvula), Bathurst Burr (Xanthium spp), Blackberry (Rubus fruiticosus), Broom (Cytisus scoparius), Gorse (Ulex nutans), Horehound (Marrubium vulgare), Nodding Thistle (Carduus nutans), Scotch Thistle (Onopordum acanthium), Serrated Tussock (Nassella trichotoma), St John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum), Sweet Briar (Rosa rubiginosa) and Vipers Bugloss (Echium vulgare).

All the priority pest plant species have the potential to reduce primary productivity, with St John's Wort, Vipers Bugloss and Serrated Tussock also poisonous or potentially harmful to livestock, and Blackberry potentially able to restrict stock access to water courses. The 12 priority species also have the potential to adversely impact on three threatened ecological communities that occur in the shire. The three communities are 'Natural Temperate Grasslands of the Southern Tablelands of NSW and the ACT' and 'Grassy White Box Woodlands', both of which are listed as nationally Endangered under the Commonwealth's Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999, and 'White Box Yellow Box Blakely's Red Gum Woodland communities' which is listed as Endangered under the NSW Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995.

The location, approximate area and density of infestation of the 12 major pest plants in Snowy River Shire are summarised in Table 1. Vipers Bugloss increased in all densities during the reporting period. Low density infestations and/or scattered plants of African Lovegrass, Scotch Thistle, Serrated Tussock, St Johns Wort, Sweet Briar and Vipers Bugloss also increased.

Table 1. Priority pest plant species in Snowy River Shire, July 2000 to June 2004
Pest plant speciesLocation and area of infestations *
African Lovegrass
(Eragrostis curvula)
Townships of Jindabyne, Berridale and Dalgety, some rural land particularly along Snowy River Corridor from Jindabyne to Ironmungy. Roadsides of major routes through shire.
Infestations cover approximately 1% of the shire and are at the following densities:
High—100 hectares
Medium—500 hectares
Low—2,000 hectares
Scattered plants—6,000 hectares
Bathurst Burr
(Xanthium spp)
Roadsides and grasslands in the eastern part of the shire.
Infestations cover less than 1% of the shire and are at the following densities:
High—60 hectares
Medium—80 ha
Low—100 hectares
Scattered plants—300 hectares
Blackberry
(Rubus fruticosus)
Riverbanks particularly the Snowy, Mowamba, Moonbah and Murrumbidgee Rivers. Low density populations in Ngadang and Paupong Nature Reserves.
Infestations cover less than 1% of the shire and are at the following densities:
High—30 hectares
Medium—40 hectares
Low—120 hectares
Scattered plants—100 hectares
Broom
(Cytisus scoparius)
Rural land and reserves in Snowy River Shire, particularly around Adaminaby and Lake Eucumbene.
Infestations cover less than 1% of the shire and are at the following densities:
High—40 hectares
Medium—30 ha
Low—10 hectares
Scattered plants—15 hectares
Gorse
(Ulex nutans)
Creeks within the shire.
Infestations cover less than 1% of the shire and are at the following densities:
Scattered plants—15 hectares
Horehound
(Marrubium vulgare)
Pastures and sheep yards within the shire.
Infestations cover less than 1% of the shire and are at the following densities:
High—60 hectares
Medium –150 hectares
Low—400 hectares
Scattered plants—900 hectares
Nodding Thistle
(Carduus nutans)
Yaouk Valley, Dry Plains, Numbla Vale and Jindabyne area.
Infestations cover approximately 1% of the shire and are at the following densities:
High—240 hectares
Medium—900 ha
Low—1,300 hectares
Scattered plants—4,000 hectares
Scotch Thistle
(Onopordum acanthium)
Rural land within Snowy River Shire.
Infestations cover approximately 12% of the shire and are at the following densities:
High—5,000 hectares
Medium—7,000 ha
Low—8,000 hectares
Scattered plants—50,000 hectares
Serrated Tussock
(Nassella trichotoma)
Rural land throughout most of shire except far north and south, but concentrated along Snowy River corridor between Jindabyne and Dalgety. High density populations in Ngadang Nature Reserves and Wullwye and low density populations in Myalla, Bobundara and Paupong Nature Reserves.
Infestations cover approximately 32% of the shire and are at the following densities:
High—1,095 hectares
Medium—1,200 hectares
Low—4,360 hectares
Scattered plants—188,000 hectares
St John's Wort
(Hypericum perforatum)
Townships of Jindabyne, Dalgety and Adaminaby, some rural land around Jindabyne, Lake Eucumbene and Paupong.
Infestations cover approximately 2% of the shire and are at the following densities:
High—500 hectares
Medium—900 hectares
Low—1,800 hectares
Scattered plants—9,000 hectares
Sweet Briar
(Rosa rubiginosa)
Rural land and reserves within Snowy River Shire. Low density population within Ngadang Nature Reserve.
Infestations cover approximately 19% of the shire and are at the following densities:
High—1,200 hectares
Medium—5,000 hectares
Low—10,040 hectares
Scattered plants—100,000 hectares
Vipers Bugloss
(Echium vulgare)
Roadsides, rural residential, rural and reserve land particularly surrounding Jindabyne, Lake Jindabyne and Dalgety.
Infestations cover approximately 6% of the shire and are at the following densities:
High—400 ha
Medium—2,500 ha
Low—10,000 ha
Scattered plants—20,000 ha

Source: Snowy River Shire Council, Department of Environment and Conservation (DEC—formerly NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service)
* Note: High density infestation (80–100% cover); Medium density infestation (50–79% cover); Low density infestation (10–49 % cover); Scattered plants (<10% cover)

Possibly up to 19 plant species were pests in the eight national parks and nature reserves that are located wholly or partly within Snowy River Shire. No information was available regarding the presence of pest plants within the two state forests partly located within the shire's boundary. (See the introduction to biodiversity.)

Pest plants as threatening processes

A final determination to list 'Invasion of native plant communities by exotic perennial grasses' as a key threatening process under the Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 was made by the NSW Scientific Committee during the current reporting period. The exotic perennial species included African Lovegrass and Serrated Tussock, both of which are of concern within the shire. The impacts of exotic perennial grasses as outlined in the final determination made by the Scientific Committee include (DEC 2004):

Pest plant control activities

NSW Government agencies

The Department of Environment and Conservation (DEC—formerly NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service) undertook control for at least 19 weed species within Kosciuszko National Park and Serrated Tussock within three nature reserves in the shire between 2001 and the end of June 2004 (see Table 2). As no detailed information was provided on the locations of the infestations within Kosciuszko National Park targeted during the 2003–04 financial year, it is not possible to ascertain which control programs were actually located within the Snowy River Shire.

Table 2. Pest plant control within national parks and nature reserves in Snowy River Shire, 2001–04
LocationPest plant speciesTotal area
treated in
2003–04 (ha)
Kosciuszko National ParkAfrican Lovegrass
Blackberry
Broom
Cotoneaster (Cotoneaster glaucophyllus)
Firethorn (Pyracantha sp.)
Greater Lotus (Lotus uliginosus)
Hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna)
Hemlock (Conium maculatum)
Holly (Ilex aquifolium)
Horehound
Nodding Thistle
Patterson's Curse (Echium spp)
Poplar (Populus sp.)
St John's Wort
Serrated Tussock
Sweet Briar
Tutsan (Hypericum androsaemum)
Not available
Bobundara Nature ReserveSerrated Tussock50 ha
Myalla Nature ReserveSerrated Tussock10.5 ha
Wullwye Nature ReserveSerrated Tussock7.5 ha

The control programs undertaken by DEC within Kosciuszko National Park between 2001 and 2003 included the following (NPWS 2001, 2002, 2003):

No information was available regarding control programs for pest plant species within state forests within the shire.

Snowy River Shire Council

Control programs for the 12 priority weeds have been in place within the shire since the 1950's. The current control program, which involves the use of contractors (rather than Council staff) to undertake works, was initiated in 1997. The Council weed control program covers 1,600 hectares of roadsides and 450 hectares of Council managed reserves. Although control work is not undertaken over the entire extent of these areas, these areas are inspected for the presence of the priority weeds.

The control of ten of the priority pest plants within the shire is undertaken according to Regional and Local Weed Management plans. Regional Weed Management plans cover the area for which the Southern Tablelands and South Coast Noxious Plants Committee is responsible. Bathurst Burr and Sweet Briar do not have management plans in place within the shire. Regional Weed Management plans for the Southern Tablelands and South Coast Region developed during the reporting period, in which the Snowy River Shire Council is involved, covered ten pest plant species (see Table 3).

Table 3. Pest plants for which regional weed management plans were prepared, July 2000–June 2004
Pest plant speciesReference
African LovegrassSTSCNPC, 2003a
Bitou Bush (Chrysanthemoides monilifera)STSCNPC, 2002e
Broom (includes Scotch/English Broom, Cape/Montpellier Broom
(Genista monspessulana), Spanish Broom (Spartium junceum))
STSCNPC, 2002b
BlackberrySTSCNPC, 2002a
St John's WortSTSCNPC, 2003d
Serrated TussockSTSCNPC, 2003c
Fireweed (Senecio madagascariensis)STSCNPC, 2003b
Chilean Needlegrass (Nassella neesiana)STSCNPC, 2002c
GorseSTSCNPC, 2002b

Within the current reporting period, sub-regional plans were prepared for the Monaro sub-region for African Lovegrass, St John's Wort, Vipers Bugloss/Patterson's Curse (Echium plantagineum), Scotch/Nodding Thistles, Horehound and Serrated Tussock. These sub-regional weed management plans were developed in sympathy with the regional weed management plans but override the latter. A sub-regional management plan is currently being developed for the Monaro sub-region for Aquatic Noxious Weeds.

The current sub-regional plans outline management actions for the period from 2003 to 2008. The major objective of all priority weed control programs within the shire is to ensure maximum suppression and destruction of declared noxious weeds on private property and public lands. The objectives of control programs for the major weeds are outlined in Table 4.

Table 4. Major objectives of control programs for priority weeds within Snowy River Shire
Pest plantsObjectives of control program
St John's Wort and African Lovegrass
  • reducing marginal populations by 25%
  • reducing core populations by 50%
  • eradicating rare and isolated populations by 2006
  • controlling all infestations on roadsides and Council-managed reserves
Serrated Tussock
  • reducing marginal populations by 25%
  • reducing core populations by 40%
  • eradicating rare and isolated populations by 2008
  • controlling all infestations on roadsides and Council-managed reserves
Vipers Bugloss,
Nodding Thistle,
Horehound and Scotch Thistle
  • prevention of spread into roadsides and reserves currently not infested
  • control isolated and rare populations on roadsides and reserves
  • prevention of spread from roadsides and reserves to clean neighbouring properties
  • support for biological control programs
Sweet Briar
  • prevention of spread within roadsides and Council reserves
  • reduction of numbers
Broom and Gorse
  • prevention of spread into areas mapped as uninfested in 2002
  • eradication of rare and isolated and new infestations
  • strategic reduction of infestation in marginal and core areas
  • educate the community about these species
Blackberry
  • prevention of spread into areas mapped as uninfested in 2002
  • coordination of cooperative control programs between shires and agencies
  • provision of extension and education programs for private landholders
  • application of long-term effective management strategies
  • promotion of native plant restoration and rehabilitation or pasture improvement in Blackberry affected areas

Source: Snowy River Shire Council

Weed control methods for priority species within the shire predominantly involved the use of herbicide, with some physical removal of Vipers Bugloss, Scotch Thistle and Sweet Briar. Biological control methods were also used in conjunction with other methods to control Vipers Bugloss, Horehound, Blackberry and Scotch Thistle.

Council is represented on the Local Management Team of the Snowy Monaro Biodiversity Conservation Strategy (SMBCS) Project, and various other projects to provide incentives to control perennial grassy weeds which threaten native grasslands in the region. Council has also developed a number of new regional weed plans with their partners in the Monaro Regional Weeds Committee which will have a positive impact on native species in the Shire.

Council supports the SMBCS Project by monitoring weed infestations on properties in the pilot area through noxious weed inspections and providing advice and support to landholders involved in the pilot project.

Expenditure on and effectiveness of pest plant control

Expenditure on weed control and outcomes of control programs for selected priority pest plant species within the shire are summarised in Table 5. The majority of funding for weed control for 10 of the priority species was sourced either through Council and/or the Department of Primary Industries (DPI—formerly NSW Agriculture). Although the figures were not available for the current reporting period, in many instances landholder expenditure within the shire for control of most weeds, including Serrated Tussock, greatly exceeded expenditure by Council and NSW State Government agencies.

Council undertook control measures for all species. Apart from Serrated Tussock and St John's Wort (see Pest plant control of Serrated Tussock and St John's Wort on private land), no information was available regarding control works undertaken by individuals (such as farmers) or community groups for any of the priority pest species.

Serrated Tussock had the greatest reduction in area of all pest plants in the shire due to control works during the reporting period, with estimated decreases in high, medium and low density infestations. This complements the reduction in infestations due to effective control measures reported during the previous reporting period. Despite the decreases, however, areas of scattered Serrated Tussock plants increased markedly from July 2000 to June 2004. This largely reflects the effectiveness of control programs in reducing high and medium density areas of the weed (which would be re-classified to the scattered plants category) as well as increased detection of infestation in areas previously considered clean, and drought conditions during the reporting period.

All densities of Vipers Bugloss within the shire were reported to increase during the reporting period despite ongoing funding for control. These increases were largely due to the under-estimation of areas of infestation in the previous reporting period and a potential increase in area due to the reporting period's drought conditions.

High and medium density infestations of Sweet Briar and St John's Wort remained unchanged in abundance during the current reporting period, while low density infestations and scattered plants increased. The increases in St John's Wort followed the 2003 bushfires and were due to the spread of propagules from increased vehicle movement at the time of seed capsule production. They may also have been due to the long dry period the region experienced and which caused increased infestations of some weed species. Differences in area of infestation between the previous and current reporting periods for Sweet Briar can be attributed largely to more accurate information for the current period, together with some actual increases in area for the species.

High and medium density infestations of African Lovegrass and Scotch Thistle were reported to have decreased during the reporting period while low density areas and scattered plants remained unchanged or increased. The decreases in high and medium infestations may be partially due to over-estimations of their densities in the previous reporting period, although some significant infestations of African Lovegrass have been controlled since July 2000. The introduction of biological control methods for Scotch Thistle during the current reporting may have further contributed to its apparent decreases. While areas of low density and scattered plants of African Lovegrass actually increased from July 2000 to June 2004, the degree of increase may be exaggerated by under-estimation of these densities during the previous reporting period.

The area of Gorse within the shire was reported to have remained unchanged during the current reporting period. This is largely inconsequential, as it only covered an area of 15 hectares. Areas of Nodding Thistle decreased in all densities within the current reporting period, largely because biological control methods were introduced and became effective in the Yaouk area. Nodding Thistle actually became denser and more widespread in the Dry Plain area within the shire.

The changes in infestation areas of Bathurst Burr and Horehound within the current reporting period are not known.

Table 5. Expenditure on pest plant control in Snowy River Shire, July 2000 to June 2004
Annual expenditure on controlling pest plant speciesOutcome: Change in abundance or spread from levels in 2001Total Area treated (ha) #
YearAmountSource of funding
African Lovegrass (Eragrostis curvula)
2000–01$22,823Council & DPIHigh density infestations—estimate decrease
Medium density infestations—estimate decrease
Low density infestations—estimate increase
Scattered plants—estimate increase
2,000 ha
(23% of infested area)
2001–02$19,458Council
2002–03$36,310Council
2003–04$32,193Council
Bathurst Burr (Xanthium spp)
2000–04$0No data are available regarding change in abundance or spread for this speciesNo data
Blackberry (Rubus fruticosus)
2000–01$224CouncilHigh density infestations—estimate decrease
Medium density infestations—estimate decrease
Low density infestations—estimate no change
Scattered plants—estimate no change
20 ha
(9% of infested area)
2001–02$274Council
2002–03$2,420Council
2003–04$1,264Council
Broom (Cytisus scoparius)
2000–01$1,307CouncilHigh density infestations—estimate decrease
Medium density infestations—estimate decrease
Low density infestations—estimate no change
Scattered plants—estimate no change
20 ha
(21% of infested area)
2001–02$3,624Council
2002–03$3,654Council
2003–04$2,110Council
Gorse (Ulex nutans)
2000–04$0Estimated no change in all densities of Gorse since 2000No data
Horehound (Marrubium vulgare)
2000–01$457CouncilNo data are available regarding change in abundance or spread for this speciesNo data
2001–02$1,100
2002–03$1,017
2003–04$0
Nodding Thistle (Carduus nutans)
2000–01$219CouncilHigh density infestations—estimate decrease
Medium density infestations—estimate decrease
Low density infestations—estimate decrease
Scattered plants—estimate decrease
No data
2001–02$1,142Council
2002–03$1,047Council
2003–04$482Council
Scotch Thistle (Onopordum acanthium)
2000–01$7,133CouncilHigh density infestations—estimate decrease
Medium density infestations—estimate decrease
Low density infestations—estimate no change
Scattered plants—estimate increase
80 ha
(0.1% of infested area)
2001–02$9,604Council
2002–03$3,655Council
2003–04$4,960Council
Serrated Tussock (Nassella trichotoma)
2000–01$37,151Council,DPI,DECHigh density infestations—estimate decrease
Medium density infestations—estimate decrease
Low density infestations—estimate decrease
Scattered plants—estimate increase
11,805 ha
(6% of infested area)
2001–02$55,815Council, DPI, DEC, NHT, landholders
2002–03$55,117Council, NHT, DEC, landholders
2003–04$282,466Council, WONS, DEC, landholders
St John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum)
2000–01$31,421Council,DPIHigh density infestations—estimate no change
Medium density infestations—estimate no change
Low density infestations—estimate increase
Scattered plants—estimate increase
2,861 ha
(24% of infested area)
2001–02$40,388Council
2002–03$33,391Council
2003–04$40,153Council, DPI, Bushcare
Sweet Briar (Rosa rubiginosa)
2000–01$1,074CouncilHigh density infestations—estimate no change
Medium density infestations—estimate no change
Low density infestations—estimate increase
Scattered plants—estimate increase
120 ha
(0.1% of infested area)
2001–02$566Council
2002–03$10,633Council
2003–04$9,094Council
Vipers bugloss (Echium vulgare)
2000–01$3,676CouncilEstimated increase for all densities since 2000 160 ha
(0.5% of infested area)
2001–02$2,463Council
2002–03$2,294Council
2003–04$9,177Council

Source: Snowy River Shire Council, DEC
# Note With the exception of St John's Wort and Serrated Tussock, total area includes area covered by control works undertaken by Council only. Area of control works undertaken by community groups and individuals for all other pest plants within the shire is not known.

Over the last five years Council has run or participated in a number of incentives projects funded by the Natural Heritage Trust and Weeds of National Significance program. These projects have brought $320,000 of funding into the shire for weed and vegetation management. The total value of the projects, including contributions from Landholders, Council and other agencies, has exceeded $3.6 million dollars over the five years to June 2005 (Table 7). Each project addressed invasion by Serrated Tussock and African Lovegrass, species that are part of a key threatening process in the region (see Pest plants as threatening processes).

Table 7. Natural Heritage Trust and Weeds of National Significance funding for weed control in Snowy River Shire, July 1999 to June 2005
ProjectTotal
Contributions
Total Grant
Funds
Total
Projects
Berridale Rocky Plains Incentives Project$2,836,824$196,471$3,033,295
Paupong Numbla Vale$163,752$40,649$204,401
WONS I$289,367$49,710$339,077
WONS II$69,949$37,394$107,343
Total$3,684,116

Source: Snowy River Shire Council

Pest plant control of Serrated Tussock and St John's Wort on private land

Serrated Tussock and St John's Wort were targeted for control on private land within the Snowy River Shire in 2002 and the 2003–04 financial year.

In 2002, Serrated Tussock control on private land within the Paupong-Numbla Vale area was partially funded through the Federal Government's Natural Heritage Trust (NHT), together with a significant contribution from landholders and Council in-kind and monetary contributions. These resources were used for weed control and revegetation works.

In the 2003–04 financial year, landholders provided $106,000 (representing 38% of total funds) for a Serrated Tussock control project on private lands in the shire. Their contribution was supplemented by $50,000 incentive funding from the Commonwealth Government's Weeds of National Significance (WONS) program and Council in-kind and monetary contributions. The project involved 54 landholders, with holdings ranging from two-hectare rural residential blocks to 2000-hectare sheep and cattle properties, and covering a total area of 19,000 hectares. Control and revegetation works were undertaken over 9,000 hectares within these holdings. Approximately 50% of the properties eradicated Serrated Tussock, with the remaining properties undertaking between 20% and 80% of control work. The remaining works on these properties are to be undertaken by landholders according to an agreed staged plan (Clarke, 2005).

A St John's Wort control program on private lands within the Ngadang area of the shire commenced in January 2004. It was funded from the Bushcare program and Council in-kind and monetary contributions.

About the data

Data were provided by Snowy River Shire Council. Its data on area infested and treated may not be an accurate representation of actual areas on the ground. A new weed mapping system for on-ground inspections is being initiated and should be available for the 2008 State of the Environment Report.

Photographs were taken by Jackie Miles and Max Campbell, see http://www.esc.nsw.gov.au/Weeds/ for more information.

Additional data collected for the 2003–04 financial year for the Ecologically Sustainable Forest Management Program were provided by DEC South Branch. No other information on DEC pest plant control programs was available for 2004.

Data regarding expenditure on weed control within reserves was provided by DEC Snowy Mountains Region.

References

Clarke, J (2005) Controlling Serrated Tussock Through Incentives: Final Report, Snowy River Shire Council.

DEC—see Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW)

Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW) (2004) NSW Scientific Committee—Final Determination, Invasion of Native Plant Communities by Exotic Perennial Grasses—Key Threatening Process Declaration, NSW Department of Environment and Conservation, viewed 3 February 2005, http://www.nationalparks.nsw.gov.au/npws.nsf/ Content/Invasion+of+native+plant+communities+by+exotic+perennial+grasses+key+ threatening+process+declaration

NPWS—See NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service

NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (2001) Weed Management Programs 2001, NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville.

NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (2002) Weed Management Programs 2002, NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville.

NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (2003) Weed Management 2003, NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville.

Southern Tablelands and South Coast Noxious Plants Committee (2001a) Regional Weed Management Plan for Aquatic Noxious Weeds 2001–2006, Southern Tablelands and South Coast Noxious Plants Committee, viewed 5 January 2005, http://www.esc.nsw.gov.au/Weeds/Fwortregionalplan.pdf.

Southern Tablelands and South Coast Noxious Plants Committee (2001b) South Coast Lantana Management Plan 2001–2005, Southern Tablelands and South Coast Noxious Plants Committee, viewed 5 January 2005, http://www.esc.nsw.gov.au/Weeds/Lantana.pdf.

Southern Tablelands and South Coast Noxious Plants Committee (2002a) Blackberry Regional Management Plan 2002–2007, Southern Tablelands and South Coast Noxious Plants Committee, viewed 5 January 2005, http://www.esc.nsw.gov.au/Weeds/BlackberryRMP02–07.pdf.

Southern Tablelands and South Coast Noxious Plants Committee (2002b) Broom and Gorse Regional Management Plan 2002–2007, Southern Tablelands and South Coast Noxious Plants Committee, viewed 5 January 2005, http://www.esc.nsw.gov.au/Weeds/BroomRMP02–03.pdf.

Southern Tablelands and South Coast Noxious Plants Committee (2002c) Chilean Needle Grass Regional Weed Management Plan 2002–2007, Southern Tablelands and South Coast Noxious Plants Committee, viewed 5 January 2005, http://www.esc.nsw.gov.au/Weeds/Chileanneedlegrass.pdf.

Southern Tablelands and South Coast Noxious Plants Committee (2002d) Groundsel Bush Regional Weed Management Plan 2002–2007, Southern Tablelands and South Coast Noxious Plants Committee, viewed 5 January 2005, http://www.esc.nsw.gov.au/Weeds/Groundselbush.pdf.

Southern Tablelands and South Coast Noxious Plants Committee (2002e) South Coast Bitou Bush Management Plan 2002–2007, Southern Tablelands and South Coast Noxious Plants Committee, viewed 5 January 2005, http://www.esc.nsw.gov.au/Weeds/BitouRMP02–07.pdf

Southern Tablelands and South Coast Noxious Plants Committee (2003a) African Lovegrass Regional Management Plan 2003–2008, Southern Tablelands and South Coast Noxious Plants Committee, viewed 5 January 2005, http://www.esc.nsw.gov.au/Weeds/AfricanLovegrassfinal.pdf.

Southern Tablelands and South Coast Noxious Plants Committee (2003b) Fireweed Regional Weed Management Plan 2003–2008, Southern Tablelands and South Coast Noxious Plants Committee, viewed 5 January 2005, http://www.esc.nsw.gov.au/Weeds/fireweedplan.pdf.

Southern Tablelands and South Coast Noxious Plants Committee (2003c) Serrated Tussock Regional Weed Management Plan 2003–2008, Southern Tablelands and South Coast Noxious Plants Committee, viewed 5 January 2005, http://www.esc.nsw.gov.au/Weeds/FSerratedtussockweedplan.pdf.

Southern Tablelands and South Coast Noxious Plants Committee (2003d) St John's Wort Regional Management Plan 2003–2008, Southern Tablelands and South Coast Noxious Plants Committee, viewed 5 January 2005, http://www.esc.nsw.gov.au/Weeds/Fwortregionalplan.pdf.

STSCNPC—see Southern Tablelands and South Coast Noxious Plants Committee