State of the Environment Report title
2 0 0 4

2004 Report



Snowy River

Native Species

Indicator description

Results for this indicator are also available for  

What the results tell us for Snowy River

The full extent of native animal and plant species diversity in Snowy River Shire is not known. About 1285 plant species (native and introduced) and 263 animal species have been recorded there, but these records are not comprehensive. Increases in reported species diversity compared with the last reporting period reflect factors such as improved use of data sources for the current State of the Environment report.

Photograph of Leafy Anchor Plant; Credit: Jackie Miles

Leafy Anchor Plant

Seventeen plant and 34 vertebrate animal species that occur in the shire are listed as Vulnerable or Endangered. The number of species in the area newly listed as nationally threatened increased by one during the reporting period, while the number newly listed as threatened in NSW increased by five. Two species had their status upgraded, one from nationally Vulnerable to nationally Endangered and the other from Vulnerable to Endangered in NSW. Another species had its status downgraded from Endangered to Vulnerable in NSW. An additional 29 threatened plant and animal species are predicted to occur in the shire.

Native plants and animals in the shire are subject to national, state and local laws relating to biodiversity protection. Formal recovery plans were in place for 10 of the 51 listed threatened species. During the current reporting period recovery plans were adopted for seven species, being prepared for another seven species and were exhibited for an additional two species. Seventeen listed animal species were covered by national action plans. Although various recovery actions had been initiated for many of the threatened species, the extent to which activities were carried out in the shire and had been effective in conserving these species was not known.

The main activities council carried out during the reporting period to protect biodiversity in the shire included identifying areas of particular environmental significance requiring assessment and development controls under its local environment plan, carrying out a project to protect high conservation value grassland sites on council land, and various projects to provide incentives for perennial grassy weed control in native grassland areas.

What native species occur in the shire?

No comprehensive lists of plant or animal species were available for Snowy River Shire. As past extensive clearing has resulted in significant loss of natural habitat for native plants and animals, species occurring in vegetation remnants within or near the shire provide some indication of the area's former native species diversity. Important areas containing remnant vegetation include national parks, nature reserves, travelling stock reserves, road reserves and cemeteries.

Plants (flora)

List of plant species in Snowy River Shire

About 1285 plant species, most of them native and including many lichen, moss and other lower plant species, have been recorded in the shire. This is about 1150 more species than reported in the 2000 State of the Environment Report, and is likely to be the result of additional survey work since June 2000 and the use of more data sources for the current report (see Differences between reporting periods). No information was available on the abundance of native plant species during the reporting period.

Seventeen plant species recorded in the shire are listed as endangered or vulnerable (see Table 1). The Leafy Anchor Plant (Discaria nitida) had its status downgraded from Endangered to Vulnerable in NSW during the reporting period. Scientific experts predict that an additional 13 vulnerable or endangered species may also occur in the shire (see Table 2), although there were no confirmed records of them at the end of the reporting period.

Table 1. Threatened plants known to occur in Snowy River Shire
Common
name
Scientific
name
Conservation status#Recovery Plan or Action Plan (Date if known)
NationalNSWChange*
Anenome ButtercupRanunculus anemoneusVVNoNational Recovery Plan (?2001); NSW Recovery Plan (2001)
Austral PillwortPilularia novae-hollandiaeENoNone
Austral ToadflaxThesium australeVVNoNational Recovery Plan in preparation (as at 28/02/04)
Creeping Hop-bushDodonaea procumbensVVNoNone
Feldmark GrassRytidosperma pumilum (Erythranthera pumila)VVNoNational Recovery Plan (?2001); NSW Recovery Plan (2001)
Kiandra Leek OrchidPrasophyllum morganiiVVNoNational Recovery Plan (2002)
Leafy Anchor PlantDiscaria nitidaVChanged from Endangered to Vulnerable in NSW,
03/11/00
None
Mauve Burr-daisyCalotis glandulosaVVNoNone
Max Mueller's Burr-daisyCalotis pubescensENoNone
Monaro Golden DaisyRutidosis leiolepisVVNoNone
Raleigh SedgeCarex raleighiiENoNSW Recovery Plan (2001)
Rough EyebrightEuphrasia scabraENoNone
Shining CudweedEuchiton nitidulusVVNoNational Recovery Plan (?2001); NSW Recovery Plan (2001)
Silky Swainson-peaSwainsona sericeaVNoNone
Silver-leafed GumEucalyptus pulverulentaVNoNone
Small Snake OrchidDiuris pedunculataEENoNone
Suggan Buggan MalleeEucalyptus saxatilisENoNone

# Status (threat category): E = Endangered; V = Vulnerable
† National status under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999; ‡ NSW status under the Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995; * Change in status since the end of the last reporting period (see also Threatened species—national status)
Source: ANH 2005; DEC 2005b; DEH 2005; NSW Government 2005

Table 2. Threatened plant species predicted to occur in Snowy River Shire
Common nameScientific name
Archer's CarexCarex archeri
Baeuerlen's GentianGentiana baeuerlenii
Button WrinklewortRutidosis leptorrhynchoides
Doubletail ButtercupDiuris aequalis
Kydra WestringiaWestringia kydrensis
Lemon ZieriaZieria citriodora
Michelago Parrot-peaDillwynia glaucula
Pale PomaderrisPomaderris pallida
Small Purple-peaSwainsona recta
Small-leaved GumEucalyptus parvula
Swamp EverlastingXerochrysum palustre
Tarengo Leek OrchidPrasophyllum petilum
Trailing MonotocaMonotoca rotundifolia

Source: DEC 2005b

Animals (fauna)

List of native animals species in Snowy River Shire

Two hundred and sixty three vertebrate animal species have been recorded in the shire, over two thirds of them birds (see Table 3). This is seven more than reported in the 2000 State of the Environment Report, and is probably the result of survey work since June 2000. Although no fish were recorded in the data sources used for this report (see About the data) or the previous report (OCE 2000), it cannot be concluded that fish are absent from the shire's rivers. The number of invertebrate species (insects etc) is not known. No specific information was available on the abundance of animals during the current reporting period.

Table 3. Number of vertebrate animal species known to occur in Snowy River Shire
Animal group (Order)Number of species
2000
Number of species
2004
Mammals3333
Amphibians1412
Birds179180
Reptiles3731
Fish
Total263256

Source: Birds Australia 2005; CSIRO 2005; NSW Government 2005; OCE 2000

Thirty-four threatened fauna species have been recorded in Snowy River Shire (see Table 4). They include 10 mammals, 16 birds, five amphibians, and three reptiles. During the reporting period, four species were newly listed as Vulnerable in NSW, one newly listed as Endangered in NSW and one newly listed as nationally Vulnerable. Two species had their status upgraded—the Mountain Pygmy-possum (Burramys parvus) from Vulnerable to Endangered in NSW, and the Spotted-tailed Quoll (Dasyurus maculatus) from nationally Vulnerable to nationally Endangered. The Mountain Pygmy-possum is considered to be one of the species most threatened in Australia under climate change, as it lives on mountain-tops and has adapted to a cold climate (DEH 2005b).

Table 4. Threatened animals known to occur in Snowy River Shire
Common
name
Scientific
name
Conservation status#Recovery Plan or Action Plan (Date if known)
NationalNSWChange*
Mammals
Broad-toothed RatMastacomys fuscusVNoNone
Eastern False PipistrelleFalsistrellus tasmaniensisVNoNone
Eastern QuollDasyurus viverrinusENoNone
Eastern Pygmy-possumCercartetus nanusVListed as Vulnerable in NSW, 08/06/01None
Greater Broad-nosed BatScoteanax rueppelliiVNoAction Plan (1999)3
KoalaPhascolarctos cinereusVNoRecovery Plan exhibited (21/03/03)
Large-footed MyotisMyotis adversusVNoAction Plan (1999)3
Mountain Pygmy-possumBurramys parvusEEChanged from Vulnerable to Endangered in
NSW; 16/03/01
National Recovery Plan in preparation (as at 28/02/04); Action Plan (1996)2
Smoky MousePseudomys fumeusEENoNational Recovery Plan in preparation (as at 28/02/04)
Spotted-tailed QuollDasyurus maculatusEVChanged from nationally Vulnerable to nationally Endangered, 14/05/04National Recovery Plan in preparation (as at 28/02/04); Action Plan (1996)2
Birds
Barking OwlNinox connivensVNoRecovery Plan exhibited (10/03/03); Action Plan (2000)1
Blue-billed DuckOxyura australisVNoAction Plan (2000)1
Brown Treecreeper (eastern subspecies)Climacteris picumnus victoriaeVListed as Vulnerable in NSW, 26/10/01Action Plan (2000)1
Diamond FiretailStagonopleura guttataVListed as Vulnerable in NSW, 26/10/01Action Plan (2000)1
Freckled DuckStictonetta naevosaVNoAction Plan (2000)1
Glossy Black-cockatooCalyptorhynchus lathamiVNoNone
Hooded Robin (south-eastern form)Melanodryas cucullata cucullataVListed as Vulnerable in NSW, 26/10/01Action Plan (2000)1
Masked OwlTyto novaehollandiaeVNoAction Plan (2000)1
Olive WhistlerPachycephala olivaceaVNoNone
Painted SnipeRostratula benghalensisVEListed as nationally Vulnerable, 15/08/03Action Plan (2000)1
Pink RobinPetroica rodinogasterVNoNone
Powerful OwlNinox strenuaVNoAction Plan (2000)1
Regent HoneyeaterXanthomyza phrygiaEENoNational Recovery Plan adopted (for period 1999–2003); Action Plan (2000)1
Speckled WarblerPyrrholaemus sagittatusVNoAction Plan (2000)1
Swift ParrotLathamus discolorEENoNational Recovery Plan adopted (for period 2001–2005); Action Plan (2000)1
Turquoise ParrotNeophema pulchellaVNoAction Plan (2000)1
Amphibians
Alpine Tree FrogLitoria verreauxii alpinaVEListed as Endangered in NSW, 15/03/02National Recovery Plan in preparation (as at 28/02/04)
Booroolong FrogLitoria booroolongensisENoRecovery Plan in preparation
Green and Golden Bell FrogLitoria aureaVENoNational Recovery Plan in preparation (as at 28/02/04)
Southern Bell FrogLitoria raniformisVENoNational Recovery Plan in preparation (as at 28/02/04)
Southern Corroboree FrogPseudophryne corroboreeEENoNational & NSW Recovery Plan (2001)
Reptiles
Grassland Earless DragonTympanocryptis pinguicollaEENoNational Recovery Plan 2000–2004 (April 2000)
Little Whip SnakeSuta flagellumVNoNone
Striped Legless-lizardDelma imparVVNoNational Recovery Plan 1999–2003

# Status (threat category): E = Endangered; V = Vulnerable
† National status under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999; ‡ NSW status under the Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995; * Change in status since the end of the last reporting period (see also Threatened species—national status)
Sources: 1 = Garnett & Crowley 2000; 2 = Maxwell et al. 1996; 3 = Duncan et al. 1999; Other sources: Birds Australia 2005; CSIRO 2005; DEC 2005b; DEH 2005; Graham 2005; NSW Government 2005

Scientific experts predict that an additional 16 vulnerable or endangered animal species may occur in the shire (see Table 5), including the Critically Endangered Golden Sun Moth (Synemon plana), although there were no confirmed records of them at the end of the reporting period.

Table 5. Threatened animals predicted to occur in Snowy River Shire
Common nameScientific name
Australasian BitternBotaurus poiciloptilus
Brush-tailed PhascogalePhascogale tapoatafa
Brush-tailed Rock-wallabyPetrogale penicillata
Eastern Bentwing-batMiniopterus schreibersii oceanensis
Giant Burrowing FrogHeleioporus australiacus
Golden Sun MothSynemon plana
Northern Corroboree FrogPseudophryne pengilleyi
Painted HoneyeaterGrantiella picta
Pink-tailed Worm-lizardAprasia parapulchella
Rosenberg's GoannaVaranus rosenbergi
Square-tailed KiteLophoictinia isura
Squirrel GliderPetaurus norfolcensis
Superb ParrotPolytelis swainsonii
Yellow-bellied GliderPetaurus australis
Yellow-bellied Sheathtail-batSaccolaimus flaviventris
Yellow-spotted Bell FrogLitoria castanea

Source: DEC 2005b

In the broader Australian Alps, South Eastern Highlands and South East Corner bioregions within which Snowy River Shire is located, some bird species not listed as threatened are reported to have decreased in abundance over the last 20 years, although others are reported to have increased (Barrett et al. 2003). A selection of these species that occur in the shire is listed in Table 6.

Table 6. Native birds reported to be declining or increasing in the Australian Alps, South Eastern Highlands and South East Corner bioregions and known to occur in Snowy River Shire*
Common NameScientific NameDecliningIncreasing
Australian RavenCorvus coronoides+
Brown FalconFalco berigora+
Buff-rumped ThornbillAcanthiza reguloides+
Crested Shrike-titFalcunculus frontatus+
Crimson RosellaPlatycercus elegans+
Dusky WoodswallowArtamus cyanopterus+
Eastern Yellow RobinEopsaltria australis+
EmuDromaius novaehollandiae+
Grey ButcherbirdCracticus torquatus+
HardheadAythya australis+
Jacky WinterMicroeca fascinans+
Little EagleHieraaetus morphnoides+
Masked LapwingVanellus miles+
Nankeen KestrelFalco cenchroides+
Nankeen Night HeronNycticorax caledonicus+
Noisy FriarbirdPhilemon corniculatus+
Red WattlebirdAnthochaera carunculata+
SilvereyeZosterops lateralis+
Spotted PardalotePardalotus punctatus+
Striated PardalotePardalotus striatus++
Superb Fairy-wrenMalurus cyaneus+
Wedge-tailed EagleAquila audax+
WeebillSmicrornis brevirostris+
Whistling KiteHaliastur sphenurus +
White-faced HeronEgretta novaehollandiae+
White-necked HeronArdea pacifica+
White-throated NeedletailHirundapus caudacutus+
White-throated TreecreeperCormobates leucophaeus+

* For a complete list of declining/increasing species in the bioregion, see Barrett et al. 2003 pages 757–788; Source: Barrett et al. 2003; CSIRO 2005; Birds Australia 2005; NSW Government 2005

Threats and impacts on native species

Habitat disturbance and fragmentation are major threats to the distribution and abundance of native plant and animal species within the shire; with changes in landcover and landuse significant factors. There is little documented information however on the specific impacts of habitat disturbance, fragmentation or other threatening factors on species.

Although native plants and animals in the shire would have been subject to prolonged drought conditions during the current reporting period, actual drought impacts on species are generally not known and/or poorly understood. Such a natural event may however affect the abundance of species by causing localised deaths (plants and animals) or migration out of the area (animals).

Threatening processes affecting plants

Several key processes listed as threatening in Schedule 3 of the NSW Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 are relevant to plant species in Snowy River Shire. They include:

The main known threats to some of the endangered/vulnerable plants occurring in the shire are outlined in Table 7. For information on known threats for other threatened plants in the area, including species predicted to occur there, see http://www.maps.nationalparks.nsw.gov.au/tsprofile.

Table 7. Selection of known threats to some listed Endangered and Vulnerable plants in Snowy River Shire
Species Known threats
Anenome Buttercup
  • horse and rabbit grazing if these animals become more prevalent
  • loss of plans and habitat through ski slope developments
Austral Toadflax, Silky Swainson-pea
  • habitat loss and degradation from residential, infrastructure and agricultural developments, intensification of grazing regimes, weed invasion, road works (particularly widening or re-routing)
Rough Eyebright
  • habitat degradation from pig and deer damage, illegal stock grazing, off-road vehicular disturbance, changes to swamp hydrology and vegetation
  • competition from the vigorous native Purple Loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) and blackberries

Source: DEC 2005b

Threatening processes affecting animals

Several key processes listed as threatening in Schedule 3 of the NSW Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 are relevant to animal species in Snowy River Shire. They include:

Eight key threats identified for native fish within the Murray-Darling Basin (MDBMC 2003) may also be relevant to fish species within the shire. These threats are low regulation, habitat degradation, lowered water quality, barriers, alien species, exploitation, diseases, and translocation and stocking.

Specific threats identified for many of the endangered/vulnerable animals occurring in the shire are shown in Table 8. The threats include a range of factors that affect species habitat, food sources or population viability. Habitat clearance and fragmentation threaten many of the species. For information on known threats for individual threatened animal species in the area and other threatened species predicted to occur there, see http://www.threatenedspecies.environment.nsw.gov.au/index.aspx.

Table 8. Selection of known threats to some listed Endangered and Vulnerable animals in Snowy River Shire
Species Known threats
Mammals*
Broad-toothed Rat;
Eastern False Pipistrelle; Spotted-tailed Quoll
  • habitat loss, fragmentation and/or degradation from roads, ski runs and buildings, loss of trees for foraging and hollow-bearing trees for roosting, weed invasion, grazing and trampling by stock, grazing by rabbits and hares, application of pesticides in or adjacent to foraging areas, global warming
  • localised extinction from catastrophic fire events, hazard reduction burning
  • predation by Red Fox and probably by cats; rabbits attract predators to areas of habitat
  • disturbance to winter roosting and breeding sites
Birds*
Barking Owl (southern form); Blue-billed Duck; Brown Treecreeper (eastern subspecies); Glossy Black-cockatoo; Hooded Robin (southern form); Masked Owl; Olive Whistler; Powerful Owl; Regent Honeyeater; Speckled Warbler
  • habitat loss, fragmentation and/or degradation from native vegetation clearance, tree loss through altered water tables, residential development, overgrazing by stock and rabbits, loss in availability of nest trees, reduction of river flows
  • fox and cat predation
  • poisoning, disturbance and predation by foxes on fledglings
  • reduction in suitably-sized prey
  • competition with Starlings for nest sites
  • road mortality
Amphibians
Green and Golden Bell Frog
  • habitat loss, fragmentation and/or degradation from infilling and destruction of wetlands, alteration of drainage patterns and stormwater runoff, use of herbicides and other weed-control measures,
  • fungal pathogen—Frog Chytrid Fungus
  • predation by feral animals such as foxes, and by exotic fish such as Plague Minnow
  • road mortality, where populations are already small due to other threats
Reptiles*
Grassland Earless Dragon; Little Whip Snake; Striped Legless Lizard
  • habitat loss, fragmentation and degradation from land clearance for residential, agricultural, rural lifestyle subdivision and industrial developments, collection of bush rock, removal of rocks and fallen timber for pasture management, slashing, ploughing, heavy grazing and trampling by stock and rabbits, invasion by weeds or escaped pasture species, tree-planting in native grasslands, application of fertilisers and other agricultural chemicals, changed hydrology
  • changed fire regimes that result in changes to vegetation structure and composition and also to invertebrate populations that are the food sources
  • predation by feral animals, domestic cats and dogs

* Each threat listed does not necessarily apply to every species; Source: DEC 2005b

What is being done to conserve native species?

Laws and policy

National and state laws provide a framework for the protection of native plant and animal species within the shire. Two state laws were enacted during the reporting period: the Native Vegetation Act 2003 and the Catchment Management Authorities Act 2003. These two laws and the National Parks and Wildlife Act 1974 provide a landscape scale framework for biodiversity management. The National Parks and Wildlife Act 1974, other state laws including the Fisheries Management Act 1994 and Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 and the national Environmental Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 provide the framework for the recognition and protection of threatened plant and animal species, and usually require the species to be taken into account during proposed developments. More information on these laws is provided in Government laws and policies.

Snowy River Shire is located within the Murrumbidgee and Southern Rivers Catchment Management Authority (CMA) areas. Each CMA is required to work in partnership with Local Government as well as other stakeholders. The Murrumbidgee Catchment Blueprint (Murrumbidgee Catchment Management Board 2003) and South East Catchment Blueprint (South East Catchment Management Board 2002), both completed during the reporting period, include a range of management actions to restore, maintain or conserve biodiversity values.

Local government regulations, legislation or planning documents such as local environment plans (LEPs) may also provide some protection for native species, or limit or prohibit certain activities that may lead to the further decline of protected species. Clause 43 of Snowy River Council's LEP addresses the protection of biological diversity, while development applications within LEP zones 1a, 1c, 1d, 6 and 7 are assessed for threatened species. Council has identified eastern approaches and river corridors as areas of particular environmental significance requiring assessment and development controls under its LEP.

Threatened species recovery planning

Of the 51 threatened species known to occur in Snowy River Shire, formal recovery plans were in place for only 10 species (see tables 2 and 6); plans for seven species were completed during the current reporting period. During the same period, plans were being prepared for another seven species and were exhibited for two other species. Seventeen animal species were covered by three national action plans, at least two of which were completed prior to the current reporting period.

An array of actions has been detailed by various conservation management agencies for many of the threatened species occurring in the shire. Although recovery actions had been initiated during the reporting period by researchers and the NSW Department of Environment and Conservation for some of threatened species with no recovery plans (DEC 2004), these actions did not necessarily occur within the shire. The extent to which recovery actions are proving effective in conserving targeted threatened species is not clear.

Other activities

During the reporting period Snowy River Council participated in the Local Management Team of the Snowy Monaro Biodiversity Conservation Strategy Project, and carried out a project (funded jointly by council and WWF) to protect high conservation value grassland sites on councils roadsides and cemeteries. Sites were mapped and signposted, and operations staff trained in ways to minimise their impact when working in these areas. The project also involved a community awareness campaign. Council also carried out various projects to provide incentives to control perennial grassy weeds which threaten native grasslands in the region. New regional weed plans developed by council with their partners in the Monaro Regional Weeds Committee, will have a positive impact on native species in the shire.

A range of nationally funded activities undertaken during the reporting period in the Murrumbidgee and Southern Rivers catchments (DIPNR 2004) may also have enhanced the conservation of plant and animal species in the shire. The conservation of species associated with native grasslands would also have benefited from work carried out through the Monaro Grasslands Conservation Management Network (see Ecological communities).

The Snowy River Shire supports ten Landcare groups. See the landcare website for further information about activities in:

About the data

Data for species lists were obtained from the sources listed below.

Selection of species records

Species records were selected from between July 1955 to June 2004. This date range was used to eliminate species which had not been recorded in the last 50 years, and to eliminate historic records with poor locational or taxonomic detail.

Where possible, an attempt was made to exclude exotic species from all species lists. However, due to extensive data and time constraints, some exotic plant species may be included in the list of native plant species and hence also included in the plant species total for the council area.

Some species, especially plants, may appear more than once in the species lists of native plants and animals where slight variations in spelling or formatting of scientific names have occurred between or within the datasets used to compile these lists.

The total number of plant and animal species referred to in this report equals the total number of taxa listed in the lists of native plant and animal species (i.e. the total 'species' count includes varieties, subspecies, forms and hybrids).

Differences between reporting periods

Where possible, any exotic species included in the 2000 lists, and species which were duplicated in the lists 2000 State of the Environment Report, were eliminated and not counted in the total number of species for this report. Species records for 2000 and 2004 which did not include a full scientific name (i.e. genus and species) were also eliminated from both lists. These three factors mean there will be discrepancies between 2000 species counts mentioned in this report and species counts mentioned in the 2000 State of the Environment report.

Species counts in the 2000 State of the Environment Report may include historic records, assuming the 2000 data were sourced from the Atlas of NSW Wildlife (see OCE 2000). Historic records (more than 50 years old) were excluded from the current report.

The number of data sources for this State of the Environment report appears to be greater than that used for 2000 State of the Environment Report. The species counts for the 2004 State of the Environment report include only records from current sources and do not include an amalgamation with species determined from 2000 State of the Environment Report sources unless the source was one of the following:

Threatened species—national status

Plant and animal species listed under the Commonwealth Government's Endangered Species Protection Act 1992 were automatically transferred to the new Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (EPBC Act) and were formally listed under the EPBC Act on 16 July 2000. Although this listing date falls within the current reporting period, the status of such species was considered to remain unchanged from the previous reporting period.

Threatened species predicted to occur in the council area

Data were provided from DEC, Threatened Species Unit, Southern Directorate as an extract from its Property Vegetation Planning Database. The information contained in this database is available on the internet (DEC 2005b), however the website is still being developed. The underlying data is being refined, additional utilities will be added and a number of known bugs resolved before the site is officially launched.

Recovery planning data

DEC provided the results of a search of the NSW Recovery Planning Database (DEC 2004). The results showed recovery actions undertaken for all threatened species within NSW for the current reporting period. The search was carried out on 15 December 2004.

References

ANH—see Australian National Herbarium

Australian National Herbarium (2005) Australia's Virtual Herbarium database, Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research, CSIRO and Australian National Botanic Gardens, Department of Environment and Conservation, Canberra.

Barrett, G, Silcocks, A, Barry, S, Cunningham, R and Poulter, R (2003) The New Atlas of Australian Birds, Royal Australasian Ornithologist's Union, Melbourne.

Birds Australia (2005) Atlas of Australian Birds database, Birds Australia, Melbourne.

Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (2005) Australian National Wildlife Collection Database, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Sustainable Ecosystems, Canberra.

CSIRO—see Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation

DEC—see Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW)

DEH—see Department of Environment and Heritage (Commonwealth)

Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW) (2004) Recovery Planning Database, Threatened Species Unit, Department of Environment and Conservation, Hurstville.

Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW) (2005a) Atlas of NSW Wildlife Database, Department of Environment and Conservation, Hurstville.

Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW) (2005b) Threatened Species, Populations and Ecological Communities of NSW Catchments, viewed 12 April 2005, http://www.threatenedspecies.environment.nsw.gov.au/index.aspx.

Department of Environment and Heritage (Commonwealth) (2005a) Species Profile and Threats Database, viewed December 2005, http://www.deh.gov.au/cgi-bin/sprat/public/sprat.pl.

Department of Environment and Heritage (Commonwealth) (2005b) Australian Farm Journal BUSH (April, 2005)— Natural Heritage Trust, Rural Press Magazines, Moonee Ponds, Victoria.

Department of Infrastructure Planning and Natural Resources (NSW) (2004) 2003/04 Combined NSW Catchment Management Authorities Annual Report, Volume 1: CMA Activities and Achievements, Department of Infrastructure Planning and Natural Resources, Sydney.

DIPNR—see Department of Infrastructure, Planning and Natural Resources (NSW)

Duncan, A, Baker, GB and Montgomery, N (eds) (1999) The Action Plan for Australian Bats, Environment Australia, Canberra.

Garnett, ST and Crowley, GM (2000) The Action Plan for Australian Birds, Environment Australia, Canberra.

Graham, C (2005) Charles Sturt University, personal communication.

Maxwell, S, Burbidge, AA and Morris, K (eds) (1996) The 1996 Action Plan for Australian Marsupials and Monotremes, Environment Australia, Canberra.

MDBMC—see Murray-Darling Basin Ministerial Council

Murray-Darling Basin Ministerial Council (2003) Native Fish Strategy for the Murray-Darling Basin 2003–2013, Murray Darling Basin Commission, Canberra.

Murrumbidgee Catchment Management Board (2003) Murrumbidgee Catchment Blueprint, NSW Department of Land and Water Conservation, Sydney, online at http://www.dlwc.nsw.gov.au/care/cmb/blueprints/pdf/murrumbidgee_blueprint.pdf.

NSW Government (2005) BioNet System, NSW Government, viewed 11 April 2005, http://www.bionet.nsw.gov.au/BioNet.cfm?is_ie5up.

OCE—see Office of the Commissioner for the Environment

Office of the Commissioner for the Environment (2000) Australian Capital Region State of the Environment Report 2000, Office of the Commissioner for the Environment, Canberra.

Royal Botanic Gardens (2005) Herbarium Collection Database, Royal Botanic Gardens, Sydney.

South East Catchment Management Board (2002) South East Catchment Blueprint – An Integrated Catchment Management Plan for the South East Catchment 2002, NSW Department of Land and Water Conservation, Sydney, online at http://www.dlwc.nsw.gov.au/care/cmb/blueprints/pdf/south_east_blueprint.pdf.