State of the Environment Report title
2 0 0 4

2004 Report



Queanbeyan

Native Species

Indicator description

Results for this indicator are also available for  

What the results tell us for Queanbeyan

The full extent of native animal and plant species diversity in Queanbeyan City Council Area is not known. About 520 plant species (native and introduced) and 157 vertebrate animal species have been recorded there, but these records are not comprehensive.

Photograph of Small Purple-pea, Swainsona recta; Credit: John Briggs

Small Purple-pea
Swainsona recta

Increases in reported species diversity compared with the last reporting period reflect factors such as improved use of data sources and changes in the size of the city council area.

Six plant and 20 animal species that occur in the city council area are listed as Vulnerable or Endangered. The number of species newly listed as nationally Critically Endangered increased by one since the last reporting period and the number listed as Vulnerable in NSW increased by two. One animal species had its status upgraded from nationally Vulnerable to nationally Endangered. An additional 26 threatened plant and animal species are predicted to occur in the city council area.

Native plants and animals in the area are subject to national, state and local laws relating to biodiversity protection. Two of the 26 threatened species known to occur in the area had formal recovery plans in place, both prepared prior to the current reporting period. During the current period, plans were being prepared for seven species and a plan was exhibited for another species. Nine animal species were covered by two national action plans. Although various recovery actions had been initiated for many of the threatened species, the extent to which activities were carried out in the city council area and had been effective in conserving these species was not known.

Activities undertaken by council during the reporting period to protect biodiversity included weed control, activities to manage the threatened Pink-tailed Worm Lizard within Fairlane Fauna and Flora Reserve and the release of a draft management plan for Mount Jerrabomberra.

What native species occur in the city council area?

No comprehensive lists of plant or animal species were available for Queanbeyan City Council Area. As past extensive clearing has resulted in significant loss of natural habitat for native plants and animals, species occurring in vegetation remnants within or near the city council area provide some indication of its former native species diversity. Important locations containing remnant vegetation include national parks, nature reserves, travelling stock reserves, road reserves and cemeteries.

Plants (flora)

List of plant species in Queanbeyan City Council Area

About 520 plant species, most of them native and including some lichen and other lower plant species, have been recorded in the city council area. This is considerably more than in the 2000 State of the Environment report for the former Queanbeyan City Council Area, largely because of the use of different data sources and the enlarged size of the current city council area (see Differences between reporting periods), and possibly because of added information from survey work since June 2000. No information was available on the abundance of native plant species during the current reporting period.

Six plant species recorded in the city council area are listed as endangered or vulnerable (see Table 1); none was listed during the current reporting period. Scientific experts predict that an additional 11 threatened species may also occur in the city council area (see Table 2), although there were no confirmed records of them at the end of the reporting period.

Table 1. Threatened plants known to occur in Queanbeyan City Council Area
Common
name
Scientific
name
Conservation status#Recovery Plan or Action Plan (Date if known)
NationalNSWChange*
Button WrinklewortRutidosis leptorrhynchoidesEENoNone
Hoary SunrayLeucochrysum albicans var. tricolorENoNational Recovery Plan in preparation (as at 28/02/04)
Mauve Burr-daisyCalotis glandulosaVVNoNone
Pale PomaderrisPomaderris pallidaVVNoNone
Silky Swainson-peaSwainsona sericeaVNoNone
Small Purple-peaSwainsona rectaEENoNational Recovery Plan in preparation (as at 28/02/04)

# Status (threat category): E = Endangered; V = Vulnerable
† National status under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999; ‡ NSW status under the Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995; * Change in status since the end of the last reporting period (see also Threatened species—national status); Source: ANH 2005; Baker 2005; DEC 2005b; DEH 2005; NSW Government 2005

Table 2. Threatened plant species predicted to occur in Queanbeyan City Council Area
Common nameScientific name
Austral ToadflaxThesium australe
Creeping Hop-bushDodonaea procumbens
Doubletail ButtercupDiuris aequalis
Kydra WestringiaWestringia kydrensis
Lemon ZieriaZieria citriodora
Michelago Parrot-peaDillwynia glaucula
Monaro Golden DaisyRutidosis leiolepis
Silver-leafed GumEucalyptus pulverulenta
Small-leaved GumEucalyptus parvula
Tarengo Leek OrchidPrasophyllum petilum
Trailing MonotocaMonotoca rotundifolia

Source: DEC 2005b

Animals (fauna)

List of native animals species in Queanbeyan City Council Area

One hundred and fifty-seven native vertebrate animal species have been recorded in the city council area, about half of them birds (Table 3). Although this is more than double the number of vertebrate species reported in the State of the Environment 2000 report for the former Queanbeyan City Council Area, the differences probably reflect factors such as the enlarged size of the current city council area and the use of different data sources (see Differences between reporting periods), and possibly added information from survey work since June 2000. No specific information was available on the abundance of animal species during the reporting period.

Table 3. Number of vertebrate animal species known to occur in Queanbeyan City Council Area
Animal group (Order)Number of species
2004
Number of species
2000 Report
Mammals3815
Amphibians107
Birds7918
Reptiles2622
Fish44
Total 15766

Source: Birds Australia 2005; CSIRO 2005; NSW Government 2005; OCE 2000

Twenty animal species recorded in Queanbeyan City Council Area are listed as endangered or vulnerable (see Table 4). They include five mammals, 10 birds, one amphibian, three reptiles and one invertebrate. During the reporting period two bird species were listed as Vulnerable in NSW, and the Golden Sun Moth (Synemon plana) was listed as nationally Critically Endangered. The status of one species—Spotted-tailed Quoll (Dasyurus maculatus)—was upgraded from nationally Vulnerable to nationally Endangered.

Table 4. Threatened animals known to occur in Queanbeyan City Council Area
Common
name
Scientific
name
Conservation status#Recovery Plan or Action Plan (Date if known)
NationalNSWChange*
Mammals
Eastern Bentwing-batMiniopterus schreibersii oceanensisVNoNone
Eastern False PipistrelleFalsistrellus tasmaniensisVNoNone
KoalaPhascolarctos cinereusVNoRecovery Plan exhibited (21/03/03)
Spotted-tailed QuollDasyurus maculatusEVChanged from nationally Vulnerable to nationally Endangered,
14/05/04
National Recovery Plan in preparation (as at 28/02/04); Action Plan (1996)2
Yellow-bellied Sheathtail-batSaccolaimus flaviventrisVNoNone
Birds
Australasian BitternBotaurus poiciloptilusVNoAction Plan (2000)1
Diamond FiretailStagonopleura guttataVListed as Vulnerable in NSW, 26/10/01Action Plan (2000)1
Freckled DuckStictonetta naevosaVNoAction Plan (2000)1
Glossy Black-cockatooCalyptorhynchus lathamiVNoNone
Hooded Robin (south-eastern form)Melanodryas cucullata cucullataVListed as Vulnerable in NSW, 26/10/01Action Plan (2000)1
Olive WhistlerPachycephala olivaceaVNoNone
Painted HoneyeaterGrantiella pictaVNoAction Plan (2000)1
Regent HoneyeaterXanthomyza phrygiaEENoNational Recovery Plan 1999–2003;
Action Plan (2000)1
Speckled WarblerPyrrholaemus sagittatusVNoAction Plan (2000)1
Superb ParrotPolytelis swainsoniiVVNoNational Recovery Plan in preparation (as at 28/02/04);
Action Plan (2000)1
Amphibians
Green and Golden Bell FrogLitoria aureaVENoNational Recovery Plan in preparation (as at 28/02/04)
Reptiles
Grassland Earless DragonTympanocryptis pinguicollaEENoNational Recovery Plan 2000–2004 (April 2000)
Pink-tailed Worm-lizardAprasia parapulchellaVVNoNational Recovery Plan in preparation (as at 28/02/04)
Rosenberg's GoannaVaranus rosenbergiVNoNone
Invertebrates
Golden Sun MothSynemon planaCEEListed as nationally Critically Endangered, 03/12/02National Recovery Plan in preparation (as at 28/02/04)

# Status (threat category): E = Endangered; V = Vulnerable
† National status under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999; ‡ NSW status under the Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995; * Change in status since the end of the last reporting period (see also Threatened species—national status).
References: 1 = Garnett & Crowley 2000; 2 = Maxwell et al. 1996; Other sources: Birds Australia 2005; CSIRO 2005; DEC 2005b; DEH 2005; DPI 2005; Graham 2005; NSW Government 2005

Scientific experts predict that an additional 15 threatened animal species may occur in the city council area (see Table 5), although there were no confirmed records of them at the end of the reporting period.

Table 5. Threatened animals predicted to occur in Queanbeyan City Council Area
Common nameScientific name
Alpine Tree FrogLitoria verreauxii alpina
Barking OwlNinox connivens
Blue-billed DuckOxyura australis
Brown Treecreeper (eastern subspecies)Climacteris picumnus victoriae
Eastern Pygmy-possumCercartetus nanus
Large-footed MyotisMyotis adversus
Little Whip SnakeSuta flagellum
Pink RobinPetroica rodinogaster
Powerful OwlNinox strenua
Southern Bell FrogLitoria raniformis
Square-tailed KiteLophoictinia isura
Striped Legless LizardDelma impar
Swift ParrotLathamus discolor
Yellow-bellied GliderPetaurus australis
Yellow-spotted Bell FrogLitoria castanea

Source: DEC 2005b

In the broader South Eastern Highlands bioregion within which Queanbeyan City Council Area is located, some bird species that are not listed as threatened are reported to have decreased in abundance over the last 20 years, although others are reported to have increased (Barrett et al. 2003). A selection of these species that occur in the city council area is listed in Table 6.

Table 6. Native birds reported to be declining or increasing in the South Eastern Highlands bioregion and known to occur in Queanbeyan City Council Area*
Common NameScientific NameDecliningIncreasing
Australian RavenCorvus coronoides+
Black-shouldered KiteElanus axillaris+
Brown FalconFalco berigora+
Brown SonglarkCincloramphus cruralis+
Buff-rumped ThornbillAcanthiza reguloides+
Crimson RosellaPlatycercus elegans+
Eastern Yellow RobinEopsaltria australis+
Grey FantailRhipidura albiscapa+
Grey TealAnas gracilis+
Nankeen Kestrel Falco cenchroides+
Noisy FriarbirdPhilemon corniculatus+
Red WattlebirdAnthochaera carunculata+
SilvereyeZosterops lateralis+
Spotted PardalotePardalotus punctatus+
Striated PardalotePardalotus striatus+
Superb Fairy-wrenMalurus cyaneus+
Wedge-tailed EagleAquila audax+
WeebillSmicrornis brevirostris+
Yellow-rumped ThornbillAcanthiza chrysorrhoa+
White-throated NeedletailHirundapus caudacutus+
White-throated TreecreeperCormobates leucophaeus+

* For a complete list of declining and increasing species in the bioregion, see Barrett et al. 2003 pages 757–788; Source: Barrett et al. 2003; Birds Australia 2005; CSIRO 2005; NSW Government 2005

Threats and impacts on native species

Habitat disturbance and fragmentation are major threats to the distribution and abundance of native plant and animal species within the city council area; with changes in landcover and landuse significant factors. There is little documented information however on the specific impacts of habitat disturbance, fragmentation or other threatening factors on species.

Although native plants and animals in the area would have been subject to prolonged drought conditions during the current reporting period, actual drought impacts on species are generally not known or poorly understood. Such a natural event may however affect the abundance of species by causing localised deaths (plants and animals) and migration out of the area (animals).

Threatening processes affecting plants

Several key processes listed as threatening in Schedule 3 of the NSW Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 are relevant to plant species in Queanbeyan City Council Area. They include:

The main known threats to some of the threatened plants in the city council area are outlined in Table 7. For information on known threats for other threatened plants in the area, including species predicted to occur there, see http://www.threatenedspecies.environment.nsw.gov.au/index.aspx.

Table 7. Selection of known threats to some listed Endangered and Vulnerable plants in Queanbeyan City Council Area
Species*Threats
Silky Swainson-pea; Pale Pomaderris; Button Wrinklewort; Small Purple-pea
  • loss and degradation of habitat and populations for residential and agricultural developments, by intensification of grazing regimes, weed invasion, and from inappropriate rail reserve maintenance and road works
  • inappropriate fire regimes
  • increased competition from other native grassland species and/or from Black Cypress Pine (Callitris endlicheri)
  • natural or un-natural catastrophic events

* Each threat listed, and each aspect of each threat, does not necessarily apply to every species; Source: DEC 2005b

Threatening processes affecting animals

Several key processes listed as threatening in Schedule 3 of the NSW Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 are relevant to animal species in Queanbeyan City Council Area. They include:

Eight key threats identified for native fish within the Murray-Darling Basin (MDBMC 2003) may also be relevant to fish species within the city council area. These threats are low regulation, habitat degradation, lowered water quality, barriers, alien species, exploitation, diseases, and translocation and stocking.

Specific threats identified for the endangered/vulnerable animals occurring in the city council area are shown in Table 8. The threats include a range of factors that affect species habitat, food sources or population viability. Habitat clearance and fragmentation threaten many of the species. For information on known threats for individual threatened animal species in the area, and for other threatened species predicted to occur there, see http://www.threatenedspecies.environment.nsw.gov.au/index.aspx.

Table 8. Selection of known threats to listed Endangered and Vulnerable animals in Queanbeyan City Council Area
Species Threats
Mammals*
Eastern Bentwing-bat; Yellow-bellied; Sheathtail-bat; Eastern False Pipistrelle; Koala; Spotted-tailed Quoll
  • habitat loss, fragmentation and degradation from native vegetation clearance, loss of hollow bearing and mature roost trees, removal of old buildings
  • predation from cats, dogs and foxes and impacts of widespread strychnine baiting for dingoes
  • competition with foxes and feral cats
  • mortality as a result of raiding caged birds
Birds*
Australasian Bittern; Diamond Firetail; Freckled Duck; Glossy Black-cockatoo; Hooded Robin (southern form); Olive Whistler; Painted Honeyeater; Regent Honeyeater; Speckled Warbler; Superb Parrot
  • habitat loss, fragmentation and degradation from native vegetation clearance, weed invasion, overgrazing by stock and rabbits, loss of tree hollows and key habitat trees, changing fire regimes, tree loss through altered water tables, drainage or modification of wetland habitats, reduction of water quality of wetlands
  • fox and cat predation of animals, and egg and nest predation
  • illegal trapping and shooting
  • illegal bird- and egg-collection
Amphibians
Green and Golden Bell Frog
  • habitat loss, fragmentation and/or degradation from infilling and destruction of wetlands, alteration of drainage patterns, stormwater runoff, use of herbicides and other weed-control measures
    fungal pathogen—Chytrid Fungus
  • predation by feral animals such as foxes and by exotic fish such as Plague Minnow
    road mortality, where populations are already small due to other threats
    Reptiles*
    Grassland Earless Dragon; Pink-tailed Worm-lizard; Rosenberg's Goanna
    • habitat loss and fragmentation from land clearance for residential, agricultural and industrial developments, removal of rocks, termite mounds and fallen timber, heavy grazing and trampling by stock and rabbits, weed invasion, slashing for hazard reduction, ploughing, tree-planting in native grasslands, changed fire regimes
    • increased mortality from moving vehicles resulting from upgrading of dirt roads to bitumen
    • predation by cats and dogs
    • erection of fences within known habitat providing perching sites for predatory birds
    • changed hydrology from activities such as irrigation and effluent disposal
      Invertebrates
      Golden Sun Moth
      • loss, fragmentation and degradation of habitat by urban, residential, infrastructure and agricultural development, changed agricultural practices, overstocking, weed invasion (particularly by exotic pasture species such as Phalaris aquatica, Paspalum dilatatum and Avena spp.)
      • colonisation of Wallaby Grass grassland habitat by dense Kangaroo Grass
      • isolation of remnant habitat fragments

        * Each threat listed, and each aspect of each threat, does not necessarily apply to every species; Source: DEC 2005b

        What is being done to conserve native species?

        Laws and policy

        National and state laws provide a framework for the protection of native plant and animal species within the city council area. Two state laws were enacted during the reporting period: the Native Vegetation Act 2003 and the Catchment Management Authorities Act 2003. These two laws and the National Parks and Wildlife Act 1974 provide a landscape scale framework for biodiversity management. The National Parks and Wildlife Act 1974, other state laws including the Fisheries Management Act 1994 and Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 and the national Environmental Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 provide the framework for the recognition and protection of threatened plant and animal species, and usually require the species to be taken into account during proposed developments. More information on these laws is provided in Government laws and policies.

        Queanbeyan City Council Area is located within the Murrumbidgee Catchment Management Authority (CMA) area. Each CMA is required to work in partnership with Local Government as well as other stakeholders. The Murrumbidgee Catchment Blueprint (Murrumbidgee Catchment Management Board 2003), completed during the current reporting period, includes a range of management actions to restore, maintain or conserve biodiversity values.

        Local government regulations, legislation or planning documents such as local environment plans (LEPs) may also provide some protection for native species, or limit or prohibit certain activities that may lead to the further decline of protected species. The document Planning Framework for Natural Ecosystems of the ACT and NSW Southern Tablelands (Fallding 2002), developed during the current reporting period, aims to provide a regional approach to conservation of biodiversity. It identifies species of conservation importance, including threatened species, and provides a methodology for integrating biodiversity issues into land use and the development of planning processes.

        Threatened species recovery planning

        Of the 26 threatened species known to occur in Queanbeyan City Council Area, two species had a formal recovery plan in place (see tables 2 and 6), both of which were completed prior to the current reporting period. During the current period, recovery plans were being prepared for seven species and a plan was exhibited for one other species. Nine animal species were covered by two national action plans, at least one of which was completed prior to the current reporting period.

        An array of actions have been detailed by various conservation management agencies for many of the threatened species occurring in Queanbeyan City Council Area. Although recovery actions had been initiated during the reporting period by researchers and the NSW Department of Environment and Conservation for some of threatened species with no recovery plans (DEC 2004), these actions did not necessarily occur within the city council area. The extent to which recovery actions are proving effective in conserving targeted threatened species is not clear.

        Other activities

        A key activity carried out by Queanbeyan City Council was the preparation in 2004 of the Mount Jerrabomberra Draft Plan of Management (Planning for People, Alistair Grinbergs Heritage Solutions and Scenic Landscape Architecture 2004). Council initiated the plan's development in response to community concern about the scale of urban development and its potential to impact upon the mountain's natural, aesthetic and landscape values. Among other things, the draft plan identifies the natural values of Mount Jerrabomberra (including native vegetation communities), existing or potential threatened flora and fauna, outlines the findings from a condition assessment, and details management issues and priority actions.

        During the reporting period Council also undertook activities to manage the threatened Pink-tailed Worm Lizard within Fairlane Fauna and Flora Reserve, and implemented weed control measures in the city council area.

        A range of nationally funded activities undertaken during the reporting period in the Murrumbidgee catchment (DIPNR 2004) may have enhanced the conservation of plant and animal species in the Queanbeyan City Council Area.

        The city council area supports four Landcare groups—Queanbeyan, Royalla, Carwoola and Fernleigh Park. The Landcare NSW website has information on the range of activities occurring in the city council area and in the Murrumbidgee catchment.

        The Molonglo Catchment Group also operates within the city council area. This community-driven group was formed in 2003 as part of the ACT Natural Resource Management Strategy that aims to develop integrated catchment management on a sub-catchment basis and extends beyond the ACT border. Amongst other things, the city council provided support for the group through the provision of meeting venues. The group is developing a Catchment Strategy for the Molonglo-Queanbeyan Rivers catchment. A draft of the Molonglo Catchment Strategy was prepared during the current reporting period, and was due for release within the next reporting period.

        About the data

        Data for species lists were obtained from the sources listed below.

        Selection of species records

        Species records were selected from between July 1955 to June 2004. This date range was used to eliminate species which had not been recorded in the last 50 years, and to eliminate historic records with poor locational or taxonomic detail.

        Where possible, an attempt was made to exclude exotic species from all species lists. However, due to extensive data and time constraints, some exotic plant species may be included in the list of native plant species and hence also included in the plant species total for the shire.

        Some species, especially plants, may appear more than once in the species lists of native plants and animals where slight variations in spelling or formatting of scientific names have occurred between or within the datasets used to compile these lists.

        The total number of plant and animal species referred to in this report equals the total number of taxa listed in the lists of native plant and animal species (i.e. the total 'species' count includes varieties, subspecies, forms and hybrids).

        Differences between reporting periods

        Where possible, any exotic species included in the lists from the 2000 State of the Environment Report, and species which were duplicated in the those lists, were eliminated and not counted in the total number of species for this report. Species records for 2000 and 2004 which did not include a full scientific name (i.e. genus and species) were also eliminated from both lists. These three factors mean there will be discrepancies between species counts for 2000 mentioned in this report and species counts reported in the 2000 State of the Environment Report.

        The species counts for 2000 quoted in this report were calculated using data only from the former Queanbeyan City Council area. They did not include species from the former Yarrowlumla Shire, parts of which are now encompassed by the new Queanbeyan City Council Area. Comparisons of species counts between the two reporting periods are thus difficult because of the changed city council area size and the lack of data from 2000 for parts of the new city council area. All records for the current reporting period cover the new Queanbeyan City Council Area boundary.

        Species counts in the 2000 State of the Environment Report may include historic records, assuming the 2000 data were sourced from the Atlas of NSW Wildlife (see OCE 2000). Historic records (older than 50 years) were excluded from the current report.

        The number of data sources for this report appears to be greater than that used for 2000 State of the Environment Report. The species counts for this report include only records from current sources and do not include an amalgamation with species determined from 2000 State of the Environment Report sources unless the source was one of the following:

        Threatened species—national status

        Plant and animal species listed under the Commonwealth Government's Endangered Species Protection Act 1992 were automatically transferred to the new Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (EPBC Act) and were formally listed under the EPBC Act on 16 July 2000. Although this listing date falls within the current reporting period, the status of such species was considered to remain unchanged from the previous reporting period.

        Threatened species predicted to occur in the city council area

        Data were provided from DEC, Threatened Species Unit, Southern Directorate as an extract from its Property Vegetation Planning Database. The information contained in this database is available on the internet (DEC 2005b), however the website is still being developed. The underlying data is being refined, additional utilities will be added and a number of known bugs resolved before the site is officially launched.

        Recovery planning data

        DEC provided the results of a search of the NSW Recovery Planning Database (DEC 2004). The results showed recovery actions undertaken for all threatened species within NSW for the current reporting period. The search was carried out on 15 December 2004.

        References

        ANH—see Australian National Herbarium

        Australian National Herbarium (2005) Australia's Virtual Herbarium database, Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research, CSIRO and Australian National Botanic Gardens, Department of Environment and Conservation, Canberra.

        Baker, T (2005), Deputy Chair, Molongolo Catchment Group, personal communication.

        Barrer, P (1993) Bushlands, Grasslands and the Ecological Resources of the City of Queanbeyan, NSW, report to the Trees for Queanbeyan Committee, the Queanbeyan Branch of the Monaro Conservation Society, the Queanbeyan City Council and the Save the Bush Grants Scheme, Queanbeyan.

        Barrer, P (1997) The Flora of South-East Yarrowlumla—a preliminary assessment, consultant's report to the Save the Bush grants scheme and the Stoney Creek Landcare Group.

        Barrett, G, Silcocks, A, Barry, S, Cunningham, R and Poulter, R (2003) The New Atlas of Australian Birds, Royal Australasian Ornithologist's Union, Melbourne.

        Birds Australia (2005) Atlas of Australian Birds database, Birds Australia, Melbourne.

        Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (2005) Australian National Wildlife Collection Database, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Sustainable Ecosystems, Canberra.

        Cornish, R (undated) Local Plants in Flower—a monthly synopsis, unpublished report.

        Cornish, R (2005) member of local branch, Society for Growing Australian Plants, personal communication.

        CSIRO—see Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation

        DEC—see Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW)

        Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW) (2004) Recovery Planning Database, Threatened Species Unit, Department of Environment and Conservation, Hurstville.

        Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW) (2005a) Atlas of NSW Wildlife Database, Department of Environment and Conservation, Hurstville.

        Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW) (2005b) Threatened Species, Populations and Ecological Communities of NSW Catchments, viewed 12 April 2005, http://www.threatenedspecies.environment.nsw.gov.au/index.aspx.

        Department of Environment and Heritage (Commonwealth) (2005) Species Profile and Threats Database, viewed December 2005, http://www.deh.gov.au/cgi-bin/sprat/public/sprat.pl.

        Department of Infrastructure Planning and Natural Resources (NSW) (2004) 2003/04 Combined NSW Catchment Management Authorities Annual Report, Volume 1: CMA Activities and Achievements, Department of Infrastructure Planning and Natural Resources, Sydney.

        DIPNR—see Department of Infrastructure, Planning and Natural Resources (NSW)

        Fallding, M (2002) Planning Framework for Natural Ecosystems of the ACT and NSW Southern Tablelands, Natural Heritage Trust, NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service and Land and Environment Planning.

        Garnett, ST and Crowley, GM (2000) The Action Plan for Australian Birds, Environment Australia, Canberra.

        Graham, C (2005) Charles Sturt University, personal communication.

        Maxwell, S, Burbidge, AA and Morris, K (eds) (1996) The 1996 Action Plan for Australian Marsupials and Monotremes, Environment Australia, Canberra.

        MDBMC—see Murray-Darling Basin Ministerial Council

        Murray-Darling Basin Ministerial Council (2003) Native Fish Strategy for the Murray-Darling Basin 2003–2013, Murray Darling Basin Commission, Canberra.

        Murrumbidgee Catchment Management Board (2003) Murrumbidgee Catchment Blueprint, NSW Department of Land and Water Conservation, Sydney, online at http://www.dlwc.nsw.gov.au/care/cmb/blueprints/pdf/murrumbidgee_blueprint.pdf.

        NSW Government (2005) BioNet System, NSW Government, viewed 11 April 2005, http://www.bionet.nsw.gov.au/BioNet.cfm?is_ie5up.

        OCE—see Office of the Commissioner for the Environment

        Office of the Commissioner for the Environment (2000) Australian Capital Region State of the Environment Report 2000, Office of the Commissioner for the Environment, Canberra.

        Planning for People, Alistair Grinbergs Heritage Solutions and Scenic Landscape Architecture (2004) Mount Jerrabomberra Draft Plan of Management, Queanbeyan City Council, Queanbeyan, viewed 16 April 2005, http://www.qcc.nsw.gov.au/page.aspx?page=2975.

        Royal Botanic Gardens (2005) Herbarium Collection Database, Royal Botanic Gardens, Sydney.