State of the Environment Report title
2 0 0 4

2004 Report



Bega Valley

Native Species

Indicator description

Results for this indicator are also available for  

What the results tell us for Bega Valley

Sooty Oystercatcher eggs; Credit: Michael Murphy

Sooty Oystercatcher eggs

The full extent of native animal and plant species diversity in Bega Valley Shire is not known. Over 2000 plant species (native and introduced) and almost 790 animal species have been recorded there, but these records are not comprehensive. Increases in reported species diversity compared with the last reporting period reflect factors such as improved use of data sources and additional survey work since June 2000.

Thirty-five plant species and 70 vertebrate and one invertebrate animal species that occur in the shire are listed as Vulnerable or Endangered in NSW and/or nationally. The number of species in the shire listed as nationally threatened increased by four since the end of the last reporting period, while the number of species listed as threatened in NSW increased by eight. Three animal species had their conservation status upgraded during the current reporting period from Vulnerable to Endangered. An additional 25 threatened plant and animal species are predicted to occur in the shire.

Native plants and animals in the shire are subject to national, state and local laws relating to biodiversity protection. Formal recovery plans were in place for nine of the 106 listed threatened species, at least five of the plans completed during the current reporting period. During the same period, plans were being prepared for another 18 species and had been exhibited for a further two species. Thirty-two animal species were covered by national action plans. Although various recovery actions had been initiated for many of the threatened species, the extent to which activities were carried out in the shire and had been effective in conserving these species was not known.

Key activities council carried out during the reporting period to help protect biodiversity in the shire included adopting a State of the Vegetation Report, continuing its Vegetation Recovery Project, preparing a guide to the management of roadside vegetation, and preparing a Management Plan for Remnant Grassy Vegetation on public land. It also commenced development of flora and fauna assessment guidelines, vegetation management guidelines and a revised Tree Protection Order, and conducted in-house training in basic identification and management of endangered ecological communities and other vegetation types of conservation significance. Council also prepared a Coastal Wildlife Corridor Strategy and continued its involvement in the Shorebird Recovery Program.

What native species occur in the shire?

No comprehensive lists of plant or animal species were available for Bega Valley Shire. As past extensive clearing has resulted in significant loss of natural habitat for native plants and animals, species occurring in vegetation remnants within or near the shire provide some indication of the area's former native species diversity. Important areas containing remnant vegetation include national parks, nature reserves, travelling stock reserves, road reserves and cemeteries.

Rhyolite Midge Orchid, Genoplesium rhyoliticum; Credit: John Briggs

Rhyolite Midge Orchid
Genoplesium rhyoliticum

Plants (flora)

List of plant species in Bega valley Shire

More than 2000 plant species, most of them native and including many lichens and other lower plants, have been recorded in the shire.

The increase is more than double the number reported in State of the Environment 2000, and is likely to reflect the use of more data sources (see Differences between reporting periods) and the inclusion of lichens and other lower plants for the current report, and additional survey work since June 2000. No information was available on the abundance of native plant species during the reporting period.

Thirty-five plant species recorded in the shire are listed as endangered or vulnerable in NSW and/or nationally (see Table 1); two species were listed during the current reporting report. Scientific experts predict that an additional 17 vulnerable or endangered species may also occur in the shire (see Table 2), although there were no confirmed records of them at the end of the reporting period.

Table 1. Threatened plants known to occur in Bega Valley Shire
Common
name
Scientific
name
Conservation status#Recovery Plan or Action Plan (Date if known)
NationalNSWChange*
Astrotricha crassifoliaVVNoNone
Austral ToadflaxThesium australeVVNoNational Recovery Plan in preparation (as at 28/02/04)
Australian Salt-grassDistichlis distichophyllaEEndangered species listing under NSW TSC Act
15/09/00
None
Bega WattleAcacia georgensisVVNoNational Recovery Plan in preparation (as at 28/02/04)
Bog GrevilleaGrevillea acanthifolia subsp. paludosaEENoNone
Box Range ZieriaZieria buxijugumEENoNational Recovery Plan (2004); NSW Recovery Plan (2002)
Chef's Cap CorreaCorrea baeuerleniiVVNoNone
Coast GroundselSenecio spathulatusENoNone
Cotoneaster PomaderrisPomaderris cotoneasterEENoNational Recovery Plan in preparation (as at 28/02/04)
David's WestingiaWestringia davidiiVVNoNational Recovery Plan in preparation (as at 28/02/04)
Deane's BoroniaBoronia deaneiVVNoNone
Hidden VioletViola cleistogamoidesENoNSW Recovery Plan
Imlay MalleeEucalyptus imlayensisEENoNone
Lacy PomaderrisPomaderris elachophyllaENoNone
Large-leafed MonotaxisMonotaxis macrophyllaENoNone
Leafless Tongue OrchidCryptostylis hunterianaVVNoNone
Matted Bush-peaPultenaea pedunculataVNoNone
Mauve Burr-daisyCalotis glandulosaVVNoNone
Narrabarba WattleAcacia constableiVVNoNational Recovery Plan in preparation (as at 28/02/04)
Narrow-leafed WilsoniaWilsonia backhouseiVNoNone
Oval-leafed PseudanthusPseudanthus ovalifoliusENoNone
Parris' PomaderrisPomaderris parrisiaeVVNoNone
Parris' ZieriaZieria parrisiaeEENoNational Recovery Plan (2004); NSW Recovery Plan (2002)
A leek-orchidPrasophyllum affineEENoNational Recovery Plan in preparation (as at 28/02/04)
Ralston's LeionemaLeionema ralstoniiVVNoNational Recovery Plan in preparation (as at 28/02/04)
Rhyolite Midge OrchidGenoplesium rhyoliticumEENoNational Recovery Plan in preparation (as at 28/02/04)
Round-leafed WilsoniaWilsonia rotundifoliaEListed as endangered in NSW, 15/09/00None
Shapely ZieriaZieria formosaEENoNational Recovery Plan (2004); NSW Recovery Plan (2002)
Small-leaved GumEucalyptus parvulaVVNoNone
Square RaspwortHaloragis exalata subsp. exalataVVNoNone
Tall KnotweedPersicaria elatiorVVNoNone
Tangled BedstrawGalium australeENoNone
Trailing MonotocaMonotoca rotundifoliaENoNone
Warty ZieriaZieria tuberculataVVNoNone
Yellow LoosestrifeLysimachia vulgaris var. davuricaENoNone

# Status (threat category): E = Endangered; V = Vulnerable
† National status under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999; ‡ NSW status under the Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995; * Change in status since the end of the last reporting period (see also Threatened species—national status).
Source: ANH 2005; DEC 2005b; DEH 2005; NSW Government 2005

Table 2. Threatened plant species predicted to occur in Bega Valley Shire
Common nameScientific name
Araluen GumEucalyptus kartzoffiana
Araluen ZieriaZieria adenophora
Budawangs Wallaby GrassPlinthanthesis rodwayi
Dense Cord-rushBaloskion longipes
East Lynne Midge OrchidGenoplesium vernale
Genoa River CorreaCorrea lawrenceana var. genoensis
Grey Deua PomaderrisPomaderris gilmourii var. cana
Kydra WestringiaWestringia kydrensis
Majors Creek Leek OrchidPrasophyllum sp. Majors Creek
Michelago Parrot-peaDillwynia glaucula
Monga Tea TreeLeptospermum thompsonii
Pale Golden MothsDiuris ochroma
Parris' Bush-peaPultenaea parrisiae subsp. parrisiae
Rough EyebrightEuphrasia scabra
Small Snake OrchidDiuris pedunculata
Swamp EverlastingXerochrysum palustre
Tessellated Spider OrchidCaladenia tessellata

Source: DEC 2005b

Animals (fauna)

List of native animals species in Bega Valley Shire

About 590 vertebrate animal species and almost 200 invertebrates species have been recorded in the shire (see Table 3). They include marine mammals and fish which may enter estuaries, embayments or have been cast up on beaches, and marine and aquatic invertebrates. The total number of vertebrate species is 125 more than reported in the previous State of the Environment report, and is largely due to the substantially greater number of fish species included in the current report. These changes most likely reflect differences in data sources between reporting periods and possible survey work since June 2000. No specific information was available on the abundance of animal species during the reporting period.

Table 3. Number of vertebrate animal species known to occur in Bega Valley Shire
Animal group (Order)Number of species
State of the Environment 2004
Number of species
State of the Environment 2000
Mammals7371
Amphibians2727
Birds300298
Reptiles4448
Fish14520
Total589464

Source: Birds Australia 2005; CSIRO 2005; NSW Government 2005; OCE 2000

Seventy-one animal species recorded in Bega Valley Shire are listed as endangered or vulnerable (see Table 4). They include 25 mammals, 40 birds, four amphibians, one fish and one invertebrate. Eleven species were listed during the reporting period, one as Vulnerable both nationally and in NSW, one nationally Endangered, another two nationally Vulnerable, one Endangered in NSW and another six Vulnerable in NSW. Three species had their status upgraded during the reporting period— the Brush-tailed Rock-wallaby (Petrogale penicillata) and Stuttering Barrred Frog (Mixophyes balbus) each went from Vulnerable to Endangered in NSW, while the Spotted-tailed Quoll (Dasyurus maculatus) went from nationally Vulnerable to nationally Endangered.

Table 4. Threatened animals known to occur in Bega Valley Shire
Common
name
Scientific
name
Conservation status#Recovery Plan or Action Plan (Date if known)
NationalNSWChange*
Mammals
Australian Fur-SealArctocephalus pusillus doriferusVListed as Vulnerable in NSW, 24/05/02None
Brush-tailed PhascogalePhascogale tapoatafaVNoAction Plan (1996)2
Brush-tailed Rock-wallabyPetrogale penicillataVEChange from Vulnerable and Endangered population in NSW to Endangered in NSW, 04/07/03National Recovery Plan in preparation (as at 28/02/04);
Action Plan (1996)2
Dugong Dugong dugonEListed as Endangered in NSW, 24/05/02None
Eastern Bentwing-batMiniopterus schreibersii oceanensisVNoNone
Eastern False PipistrelleFalsistrellus tasmaniensisVNoNone
Eastern Freetail-batMormopterus norfolkensisVNoNone
Eastern Pygmy-possumCercartetus nanusVListed as Vulnerable in NSW, 08/06/01None
Golden-tipped BatKerivoula papuensisVNoAction Plan (1999)3
Greater Broad-nosed BatScoteanax rueppelliiVNoAction Plan (1999)3
Grey-headed Flying-foxPteropus poliocephalusVVListed as nationally Vulnerable,
06/12/01; listed as Vulnerable in NSW,
04/05/01
National Recovery Plan in preparation (as at 28/02/04)
Humpback Whale Megaptera novaeangliaeVVNoNational Recovery Plan in preparation (as at 28/02/04)
KoalaPhascolarctos cinereusVNoRecovery Plan exhibited (21/03/03)
Large-footed MyotisMyotis adversusVNoAction Plan (1999)3
Long-footed PotorooPotorous longipesEENoNational Recovery Plan (2000); NSW Recovery Plan (Feb 2000)
Long-nosed PotorooPotorous tridactylusVVListed as nationally Vulnerable, 16/07/01National Recovery Plan in preparation (as at 28/02/04)
New Zealand Fur-seal Arctocephalus forsteriVListed as Vulnerable in NSW, 24/05/02None
Smoky MousePseudomys fumeusEENoNational Recovery Plan in preparation (as at 28/02/04)
Southern Brown Bandicoot (eastern)Isoodon obesulus obesulusEEListed as nationally Endangered, 04/04/01National Recovery Plan in preparation (as at 28/02/04)
Southern Right Whale Eubalaena australisEVNoNone
Sperm WhalePhyseter macrocephalusVNoNone
Spotted-tailed QuollDasyurus maculatusEVChanged from nationally Vulnerable to nationally Endangered,
14/05/04
National Recovery Plan in preparation (as at 28/02/04); Action Plan (1996)2
Squirrel GliderPetaurus norfolcensisVNoAction Plan (1996)2
White-footed DunnartSminthopsis leucopusVNoAction Plan (1996)2
Yellow-bellied GliderPetaurus australisVNoRecovery Plan (gazetted 07/03/03);
Action Plan (1996)2
Birds
Australasian BitternBotaurus poiciloptilusVNoAction Plan (2000)1
Barking OwlNinox connivensVNoRecovery Plan exhibited (10/03/03);
Action Plan (2000)1
Black BitternIxobrychus flavicollisVNoNone
Black-browed AlbatrossThalassarche melanophrisVNoAction Plan (2000)1
Black-tailed GodwitLimosa limosaVNoNone
Black-winged Petrel Pterodroma nigripennisVNoAction Plan (2000)1
Blue-billed DuckOxyura australisVNoAction Plan (2000)1
Brown Treecreeper (eastern subspecies)Climacteris picumnus victoriaeVListed as Vulnerable in NSW, 26/10/01Action Plan (2000)1
Bush Stone-curlewBurhinus grallariusENoAction Plan (2000)1
Comb-crested JacanaIrediparra gallinaceaVNoNone
Diamond FiretailStagonopleura guttataVListed as Vulnerable in NSW, 26/10/01Action Plan (2000)1
Eastern BristlebirdDasyornis brachypterusEENoNational Recovery Plan in preparation (as at 28/02/04)
Eastern Ground ParrotPezoporus wallicus wallicusVNoNone
Flesh-footed Shearwater Puffinus carneipesVNoNone
Glossy Black-cockatooCalyptorhynchus lathamiVNoNone
Hooded PloverThinornis rubricollisENoAction Plan (2000)1
Hooded Robin (south-eastern form)Melanodryas cucullata cucullataVListed as Vulnerable in NSW, 26/10/01Action Plan (2000)1
Grey FalconFalco hypoleucosVNoAction Plan (2000)1
Lesser Sand Plover Charadrius mongolusVNoNone
Little TernSterna albifronsENoNSW Recovery Plan
Masked OwlTyto novaehollandiaeVNoAction Plan (2000)1
Olive WhistlerPachycephala olivaceaVNoNone
OspreyPandion haliaetusVNoNone
Painted SnipeRostratula benghalensisVEListed as nationally Vulnerable, 15/08/03Action Plan (2000)1
Pied OystercatcherHaematopus longirostrisVNoNone
Pink RobinPetroica rodinogasterVNoNone
Powerful OwlNinox strenuaVNoAction Plan (2000)1
Providence Petrel Pterodroma solandriVNoAction Plan (2000)1
Regent HoneyeaterXanthomyza phrygiaEENoNational Recovery Plan 1999–2003 (1999); Action Plan (2000)1
SanderlingCalidris albaVNoNone
Shy AlbatrossThalassarche cautaVVNoAction Plan (2000)1
Sooty OwlTyto tenebricosaVNoAction Plan (2000)1
Sooty OystercatcherHaematopus fuliginosusVNoNone
Speckled WarblerPyrrholaemus sagittatusVNoAction Plan (2000)1
Square-tailed KiteLophoictinia isuraVNoAction Plan (2000)1
Striated FieldwrenCalamanthus fuliginosusVNoNone
Superb Fruit-dovePtilinopus superbusVNoNone
Swift ParrotLathamus discolorEENoNational Recovery Plan 2001–2005 (2001); Action Plan (2000)1
Turquoise ParrotNeophema pulchellaVNoAction Plan (2000)1
Wandering Albatross Diomedea exulansVVNoAction Plan (2000)1
Amphibians
Giant Burrowing FrogHeleioporus australiacusVVNoNone
Green and Golden Bell FrogLitoria aureaVENoNational Recovery Plan in preparation (as at 28/02/04)
Littlejohn's Tree FrogLitoria littlejohniVVNoNone
Stuttering Barrred FrogMixophyes balbusVEChanged from Vulnerable to Endangered in NSW, 13/12/02National Recovery Plan in preparation (as at 28/02/04)
Fish
Black CodEpinephelus daemeliiV4NoNone
Invertebrates
Giant DragonflyPetalura giganteaENoNone

# Status (threat category): E = Endangered; V = Vulnerable
† National status under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999; ‡ NSW status under the Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995; * Change in status since the end of the last reporting period (see also Threatened species—national status).
References: 1 = Garnett & Crowley 2000; 2 = Maxwell et al. 1996; 3 = Duncan et al. 1999; 4 = DPI 2005; Other sources: Birds Australia 2005; CSIRO 2005; DEC 2005b; DEH 2005; Graham 2005; NSW Government 2005

Scientific experts predict that an additional eight vulnerable or endangered animal species may occur in the shire (see Table 5), although there were no confirmed records of them at the end of the reporting period.

Table 5. Threatened animals predicted to occur in Bega Valley Shire
Common nameScientific name
Broad-headed SnakeHoplocephalus bungaroides
Large-eared Pied BatChalinolobus dwyeri
Orange-bellied ParrotNeophema chrysogaster
Purple-crowned LorikeetGlossopsitta porphyrocephala
Rosenberg's GoannaVaranus rosenbergi
Southern Bell FrogLitoria raniformis
Striped Legless LizardDelma impar
Yellow-bellied Sheathtail-batSaccolaimus flaviventris

Source: DEC 2005b

In the broader South East Corner bioregion within which Bega Valley Shire is located, some bird species that are not listed as threatened are reported to have decreased in abundance over the last 20 years, although others are reported to have increased (Barrett et al. 2003). A selection of these species that occur in the shire is listed in Table 6.

Table 6. Native birds reported to be declining or increasing in the South East Corner bioregion and known to occur in Bega Valley Shire*
Common nameScientific nameDecliningIncreasing
Australian White IbisThreskiornis molucca+
Black-fronted DotterelElseyornis melanops+
Brown FalconFalco berigora+
Brown-headed HoneyeaterMelithreptus brevirostris+
Crested Shrike-titFalcunculus frontatus+
Dusky WoodswallowArtamus cyanopterus+
EmuDromaius novaehollandiae+
Eurasian CootFulica atra+
Grey ButcherbirdCracticus torquatus+
Grey TealAnas gracilis+
Hoary-headed GrebePoliocephalus poliocephalus+
Jacky WinterMicroeca fascinans+
Masked Lapwing Vanellus miles+
Nankeen Kestrel Falco cenchroides+
Noisy FriarbirdPhilemon corniculatus+
Noisy MinerManorina melanocephala+
Red-browed FinchNeochmia temporalis+
Red WattlebirdAnthochaera carunculata+
Restless FlycatcherMyiagra inquieta+
Rufous FantailRhipidura rufifrons+
Varied SittellaDaphoenositta chrysoptera+
Wedge-tailed EagleAquila audax+
Whistling KiteHaliastur sphenurus +
White-eared HoneyeaterLichenostomus leucotis+
White-faced HeronEgretta novaehollandiae+
White-necked HeronArdea pacifica+
White-throated NeedletailHirundapus caudacutus+

* For a complete list of declining and increasing species in the bioregion, see Barrett et al. 2003 pages 757–788; Source: Barrett et al 2003; Birds Australia 2005;CSIRO 2005; NSW Government 2005.

Threats and impacts on native species

Habitat disturbance and fragmentation are major threats to the distribution and abundance of native plant and animal species within the shire; with changes in landcover and landuse significant factors. There is little documented information however on the specific impacts of habitat disturbance, fragmentation or other threatening factors on species.

Although native plants and animals in the shire would have been subject to prolonged drought conditions during the current reporting period, actual drought impacts on species are generally not known or poorly understood. Such a natural event may however affect the abundance of species by causing localised deaths (plants and animals) and migration out of the area (animals).

Threatening processes affecting plants

Several key processes listed as threatening in Schedule 3 of the NSW Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 are relevant to plant species in Bega Valley Shire. They include:

The main known threats to two of the listed plant species in Bega Valley Shire are outlined in Table 7. For information on known threats for other listed plants in the shire, and species predicted to occur there, see http://www.threatenedspecies.environment.nsw.gov.au/index.aspx.

Table 7. Selection of known threats to two listed Endangered or Vulnerable plants in Bega Valley Shire
Species Threats
Cotonaster Pomaderris
  • fires at too short an interval could cause local extinction if plants take a long time following germination to produce seed and most adults are killed by fire
  • populations located in areas of high public use may be damaged along walking tracks
Mauve Burr-daisy
  • loss and degradation of habitat and/or populations from road works (particularly widening or re-routing), by clearing of habitat for residential and agricultural developments, intensification of grazing regimes and by invasion of weeds

Source: DEC 2005b

Threatening processes affecting animals

Several key processes listed as threatening in Schedule 3 of the NSW Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 are relevant to animal species in Bega Valley Shire. They include:

Some key threats identified for native fish within the Murray-Darling Basin (MDBMC 2003) may also be relevant to fish species within the shire. These threats are low regulation, habitat degradation, lowered water quality, barriers, alien species, exploitation, diseases, and translocation and stocking.

Specific threats identified for many of the endangered/vulnerable animals occurring in the shire are shown in Table 8. The threats include a range of factors that affect species habitat, food sources or population viability. Habitat clearance and fragmentation threaten many of the species. For information on known threats for individual threatened animal species in the area, and for other threatened species predicted to occur there, see http://www.threatenedspecies.environment.nsw.gov.au/index.aspx.

Table 8. Selection of known threats to some listed Endangered and Vulnerable animals in Bega Valley Shire
Threatened Species Known Threats
Mammals
Eastern False Pipistrelle
  • disturbance to winter roosting and breeding sites
  • loss of trees for foraging and hollow-bearing trees for roosting
  • application of pesticides in or adjacent to foraging areas
Eastern Pygmy-possum
  • predation from cats, dogs and foxes
  • clearance and fragmentation of habitat
  • changed fire regimes affecting food plants
  • declining shrub diversity from overgrazing by stock and rabbits
  • loss of nest sites due to removal of firewood
Yellow-bellied Glider
  • loss and fragmentation of habitat
  • loss of hollow-bearing trees
  • loss of feed trees
Birds*
Barking Owl (southern form); Brown Treecreeper (eastern subspecies); Glossy Black-cockatoo; Hooded Robin (southern form); Masked Owl; Olive Whistler; Powerful Owl; Speckled Warbler
  • native vegetation clearance, habitat loss & fragmentation
  • fox and cat predation
  • loss of ground cover due to overgrazing by stock and rabbits
  • tree loss through altered water tables
  • loss in availability of nest trees
  • reduction in suitably-sized prey
  • poisoning, disturbance and predation by foxes on fledglings
  • competition with Starlings for nest sites
  • road mortality
  • reduction of river flows
Amphibians
Green and Golden Bell Frog
  • alteration and destruction of wetlands
  • alteration of drainage patterns and stormwater runoff
  • Frog Chytrid Fungus pathogen
  • predation by feral animals such as foxes, and by exotic fish such as Plague Minnow
  • herbicides and other weed-control measures
  • road mortality where populations are already small due to other threats

* Each threat listed does not necessarily apply to every species; Source: DEC 2005b

What is being done to conserve native species?

Laws and policy

National and state laws provide a framework for the protection of native plant and animal species within the shire. Two state laws were enacted during the reporting period: the Native Vegetation Act 2003 and the Catchment Management Authorities Act 2003. These two laws and the National Parks and Wildlife Act 1974 provide a landscape scale framework for biodiversity management. The National Parks and Wildlife Act 1974, other state laws including the Fisheries Management Act 1994 and Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 and the national Environmental Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 provide the framework for the recognition and protection of threatened plant and animal species, and usually require the species to be taken into account during proposed developments. More information on these laws is provided in Government laws and policies.

Bega Valley Shire is located within the Southern Rivers Catchment Management Authority (CMA) area. The CMA is required to work in partnership with Local Government as well as other stakeholders. The South East Catchment Blueprint (South East Catchment Management Board 2002), which was completed during the reporting period, includes a range of management actions to restore, maintain or conserve biodiversity values.

Local government regulations, legislation or planning documents such as local environment plans may also provide some protection for native species, or limit or prohibit certain activities that may lead to the further decline of protected species.

Threatened species recovery planning

Of the 106 threatened species known to occur in Bega Valley Shire, only nine species (four plants and five animals) have formal recovery plans in place (see tables 1 and 4) at least five of which were completed during the current reporting period. During the same period plans were being prepared for another eight plant species and 10 animal species, and had been exhibited for an additional two animal species. Thirty-two animal species were covered by three national action plans, at least two of which were completed prior to the current reporting period.

An array of actions has been detailed by various conservation management agencies for many of the threatened species occurring in Bega Valley Shire. Although recovery actions had been initiated during the reporting period by researchers and the NSW Department of Environment and Conservation for some of threatened species with no recovery plans, these actions did not necessarily occur within the shire. The extent to which these recovery actions are proving effective in conserving targeted threatened species is not clear.

The South Coast Shorebird Recovery Program is a specific long-term recovery program for threatened shorebirds. It is an ongoing collaborative effort of Shorebird Recovery coordinators, volunteers, council rangers, Rural Lands Protection Board rangers and Department of Environment and Conservation staff that is proving beneficial to the future conservation of these threatened species.

Other activities

Bega Valley Shire Council carried out a range of planning and other activities during the reporting period that assisted the conservation of native species in the shire.

To facilitate regional vegetation management planning, Council adopted a State of the Vegetation Report (Miles 2000). This comprehensive document outlines the vegetation types and threatened flora occurring in the shire, their conservation status and real or potential threats to them. The report lists the protection mechanisms in place to conserve species or communities, and provides recommendations for the council, the catchment management committee in place at the time and for the regional native vegetation committee.

Council's Vegetation Recovery Program was part of the Southern Rivers Catchment Management Authority's Voluntary Biological Diversity Conservation Program, and made a major contribution to it. Council's program targeted endangered ecological communities and vegetation of conservation significance, as identified in the State of the Vegetation Report, that occurred on freehold land. It provided landholders with advice on the long-term management of their conservation area, and fencing and planting materials used for ecosystem restoration. Council and the landholder entered into a contract as part of a long-term partnership in achieving conservation outcomes for each project site. Funding surety continues to be the greatest problem to ensuring this program's continued success.

Council had a roadside vegetation management guide prepared for the shire (Miles and Roche 2004). Primarily aimed at council staff to assist them to effectively manage roadside vegetation, the guide provides information on the types and location of significant roadside vegetation, management methods, and noxious and other weeds found on sites.

Council also prepared a Management Plan for Remnant Grassy Vegetation on public land, commenced development of flora and fauna assessment guidelines and a revised Tree Protection Order, and conducted in-house training in basic identification and management of endangered ecological communities and other vegetation types of conservation significance. Council also prepared a Coastal Wildlife Corridor Strategy and continued its involvement in the Shorebird Recovery Program.

The Bega River Estuary Data Review (DIPNR 2004b) carried out during the reporting period defines the main issues relevant to the estuary, including those affecting native species. It is envisaged that this report will lead to further studies of the estuary being undertaken. A range of nationally funded activities undertaken during the reporting period in the Southern Rivers catchment (DIPNR 2004a) may also have enhanced the conservation of plant and animal species in Bega Valley Shire.

The shire supports 26 Landcare Groups, some of which may also be Coastcare Groups. The Landcare NSW website has information on the range of activities occurring in the shire and the Southern Rivers catchments.

About the data

Data for species lists were obtained from the sources listed below.

Selection of species records

Species records were selected from between July 1955 to June 2004. This date range was used to eliminate species which had not been recorded in the last 50 years, and to eliminate historic records with poor locational or taxonomic detail.

Where possible, an attempt was made to exclude exotic species from all species lists. However, due to extensive data and time constraints, some exotic plant species may be included in the list of native plant species and hence also included in the plant species total for the shire.

Some species, especially plants, may appear more than once in the species lists of native plants and animals where slight variations in spelling or formatting of scientific names have occurred between or within the datasets used to compile these lists.

The total number of plant and animal species referred to in this report equals the total number of taxa listed in the lists of native plant and animal species (i.e. the total 'species' count includes varieties, subspecies, forms and hybrids).

Differences between reporting periods

Where possible, any exotic species included in the lists from the 2000 State of the Environment Report, and species which were duplicated in the those lists, were eliminated and not counted in the total number of species for this report. Species records for 2000 and 2004 which did not include a full scientific name (i.e. genus and species) were also eliminated from both lists. These three factors mean there will be discrepancies between species counts for 2000 mentioned in this report and species counts reported in the 2000 State of the Environment Report.

Species counts in the State of the Environment 2000 report may include historic records, assuming the 2000 data were sourced from the Atlas of NSW Wildlife (see OCE 2000). Historic records (more than 50 years old) were excluded from the current report.

The number of data sources for this report appears to be greater than that used for the 2000 State of the Environment Report. The species counts for this report only include records from current sources and do not include an amalgamation with species determined from 2000 State of the Environment Report sources unless the source was one of the following:

Threatened species—national status

Plant and animal species listed under the Commonwealth Government's Endangered Species Protection Act 1992 were automatically transferred to the new Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (EPBC Act) and were formally listed under the EPBC Act on 16 July 2000. Although this listing date falls within the current reporting period, the status of such species was considered to remain unchanged from the previous reporting period.

Threatened species predicted to occur in the shire

Data were provided from DEC, Threatened Species Unit, Southern Directorate as an extract from its Property Vegetation Planning Database. The information contained in this database is available on the internet (DEC 2005b), however the website is still being developed. The underlying data is being refined, additional utilities will be added and a number of known bugs resolved before the site is officially launched.

Recovery planning data

DEC provided the results of a search of the NSW Recovery Planning Database (DEC 2004). The results showed recovery actions undertaken for all threatened species within NSW for the current reporting period. The search was carried out on 15 December 2004.

References

ANH—see Australian National Herbarium

Australian National Herbarium (2005) Australia's Virtual Herbarium database, Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research, CSIRO and Australian National Botanic Gardens, Department of Environment and Conservation, Canberra.

Barrett, G, Silcocks, A, Barry, S, Cunningham, R and Poulter, R (2003) The New Atlas of Australian Birds, Royal Australasian Ornithologist's Union, Melbourne.

Birds Australia (2005) Atlas of Australian Birds database, Birds Australia, Melbourne.

Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (2005) Australian National Wildlife Collection Database, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Sustainable Ecosystems, Canberra.

CSIRO—see Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation

DEC—see Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW)

DEH—see Department of Environment and Heritage (Commonwealth)

Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW) (2004) Recovery Planning Database, Threatened Species Unit, Department of Environment and Conservation, Hurstville.

Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW) (2005a) Atlas of NSW Wildlife Database, Department of Environment and Conservation, Hurstville.

Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW) (2005b) Threatened Species, Populations and Ecological Communities of NSW Catchments, viewed 12 April 2005, http://www.threatenedspecies.environment.nsw.gov.au/index.aspx.

Department of Environment and Heritage (Commonwealth) (2005) Species Profile and Threats Database, viewed December 2005, http://www.deh.gov.au/cgi-bin/sprat/public/sprat.pl.

Department of Infrastructure Planning and Natural Resources (NSW) (2004a) 2003/04 Combined NSW Catchment Management Authorities Annual Report, Volume 1: CMA Activities and Achievements, Department of Infrastructure Planning and Natural Resources, Sydney.

Department of Infrastructure, Planning and Natural Resources (NSW) (2004b) Bega River Estuary Data Review, Final Report January 2004, DIPNR, South Coast, Wollongong, viewed 16 April 2005, http://www.begavalley.nsw.gov.au/Environment/Environment_Reports/Bega%20River.htm.

Department of Primary Industries (2005) Fisheries Scientific Committee Final Recommendations, viewed April 2005, http://www.fisheries.nsw.gov.au/threatened_species/fsc/recomend.

DIPNR—see Department of Infrastructure, Planning and Natural Resources (NSW)

DPI—see Department of Primary Industries

Duncan, A, Baker, GB and Montgomery, N (eds) (1999) The Action Plan for Australian Bats, Environment Australia, Canberra.

Garnett, ST and Crowley, GM (2000) The Action Plan for Australian Birds, Environment Australia, Canberra.

Graham, C (2005) Charles Sturt University, personal communication.

Maxwell, S, Burbidge, AA and Morris, K (eds) (1996) The 1996 Action Plan for Australian Marsupials and Monotremes, Environment Australia, Canberra.

MDBMC—see Murray-Darling Basin Ministerial Council

Miles, J (2000) State of the Vegetation Report for the Bega Valley Shire, report prepared for the Bega Valley Shire Council and the Far South Coast Catchment Management Committee, Bega Valley Shire Council, Bega, viewed 16 April 2005, http://www.begavalley.nsw.gov.au/Environment/vegetation/vegetation.htm.

Miles, J and Roche, G (2004) Guide to the management of roadside sites with significant native vegetation, Bega Valley Shire Council, Bega, viewed 16 April 2005, http://www.begavalley.nsw.gov.au/Environment/Environment_Reports/roadside/BVSC%20A5%20Guide%20-%20WEB.pdf.

Murray-Darling Basin Ministerial Council (2003) Native Fish Strategy for the Murray-Darling Basin 2003–2013, Murray Darling Basin Commission, Canberra.

NSW Government (2005) BioNet System, NSW Government, viewed 11 April 2005, http://www.bionet.nsw.gov.au/BioNet.cfm?is_ie5up.

OCE—see Office of the Commissioner for the Environment

Office of the Commissioner for the Environment (2000) Australian Capital Region State of the Environment Report 2000, Office of the Commissioner for the Environment, Canberra.

Royal Botanic Gardens (2005) Herbarium Collection Database, Royal Botanic Gardens, Sydney.

South East Catchment Management Board (2002) South East Catchment Blueprint – An Integrated Catchment Management Plan for the South East Catchment 2002, NSW Department of Land and Water Conservation, Sydney, online at http://www.dlwc.nsw.gov.au/care/cmb/blueprints/pdf/south_east_blueprint.pdf.